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Cameron R. Homeyer and Kenneth P. Bowman

), which is conventionally taken to be the level of the tropopause in the deep tropics ( Holton et al. 1995 ). Pan et al. (2009) label these poleward transport events as “tropospheric intrusions.” Rossby wave breaking, however, is known to be a two-way transport mechanism and there have also been studies focused on intrusions of extratropical LS air into the tropical UT (e.g., Waugh and Polvani 2000 ; Waugh 2005 ; Konopka et al. 2010 ; Ploeger et al. 2012 ). As discussed in Pan et al. (2009

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Chuntao Liu and Edward J. Zipser

feature ( Nesbitt et al. 2006 ). In this study, we use a similar PF method to evaluate the importance of warm rainfall over the tropics and compare this with the amount of warm rainfall accumulated from all warm raining pixels. Generally, nondrizzle warm rain systems are shallow, isolated, and of small size as shown in Fig. 1a and demonstrated later (see Fig. 7 ). However, large warm precipitation systems do exist over the tropics ( Rauber et al. 2007 ). For example, in Fig. 2 , two precipitation

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Harry van Loon and Roy L. Jenne

218 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VOLUME 26The Half-Yearly Oscillations in the Tropics of the Southern Hemisphere HARRY VAN LOON AND ROY L. JENNENational Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Cdo.(Manuscript received 14 June 1968, in revised form 2 November 1968)ABSTRACT In the tropics of the Southern Hemisphere the zonal wind in the troposphere above the 500-rob levelhas a well defined half

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Roland A. Madden and Paul R. Julian

S~PTE~Um~1972 ROLAND A. MADDEN AND PAUL R. JULIAN 1109Description of Global-Scale Circulation Cells in the Tropics with a 40-50 Day Period ROLAND A. MADDEN AND PAUL R. JULIANNational Center for Atmospheric Research,~ Boulder, Colo. 80302(Manuscript received 6 April, in revised form 15 May 1972)ABSTRACT Long time series (5-10 years) of station pressure and upper air data from stations located in the tropicsare

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K. Fraedrich and L. M. Leslie

SEPTEMBER 1988 NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE 243NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCEA Minimal Model for the Short-Term Prediction of Rainfall in the Tropics K. FRAEDRICH* AND L. M. LESLIE Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia 8 December 1987 and 10 March 1988 ABSTRACT A "minimal" model is proposed hem for the short-term prediction (up to

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Kevin E. Trenberth and Lesley Smith

1. Introduction A central issue in recent debates about climate change has been the relationship between changes in surface temperature versus those in the free atmosphere. As the climate warms, climate models tend to amplify changes in temperature with height in the Tropics, largely following the moist-adiabatic lapse rate, signaling the dominance of moist convection for determining the lapse rate in the tropical troposphere. For a given increase in surface temperature this means larger

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Anne K. Smith, Rolando R. Garcia, Andrew C. Moss, and Nicholas J. Mitchell

at 20 hPa. This may be due to the coarser latitudinal resolution of the SABER data since the westerly phase of the QBO is narrowly confined to the deep tropics. The month-to-month variability does not always agree. The satellite winds show more month-to-month variability during periods of strong westerly wind; both the satellite and Singapore winds are variable during periods of strong easterly wind. There could also be a systematic discrepancy between zonally averaged satellite winds and single

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David J. Nash and George C. D. Adamson

Historical documents from tropical regions contain weather information that can be used to reconstruct past climate variability, the occurrence of tropical storms, and El Niño and La Niña episodes. In comparison with the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes, the nature of long-term climatic variability in the tropics and subtropics is poorly understood. This is due primarily to a lack of meteorological data. Few tropical countries have continuous records extending back much further than the late

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Carolyn A. Reynolds, Justin G. McLay, James S. Goerss, Efren A. Serra, Daniel Hodyss, and Charles R. Sampson

aspects of the practical application of the ET described in McLay et al. (2008) that can be improved upon. Primarily, given a finite number of ensemble members, the initial ensemble perturbations are too small in the tropics and too large in the midlatitudes, when compared to the analysis error variance estimate produced by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) Atmospheric Variational Data Assimilation System (NAVDAS; Daley and Barker 2001 ). McLay et al. (2007) illustrate how an archive of

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Arthur F. Krueger and Jay S. Winston

358 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VoLu~m31A Comparison of the Flow Over the Tropics During Two Contrasting Circulation Regimes Aa:rrrua F. Kacr~oEa .~o JAY S. W~STONNational Environmentat Satellite Seroic~, NOAA, Hillcrest Heights, Md. 20031(Manuscript received I1 June 1973, in revised form 25 October 1973)ABSTRACT The contrasting circulation and cloudiness over the tropics during two extremes

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