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Samar Minallah and Allison L. Steiner

1. Introduction Precipitation is a principal component in the land and atmospheric moisture budgets, regulating the water availability and quality in the Great Lakes watersheds and various processes including surface runoff, lake levels, soil moisture, and groundwater reserves. It is affected both by local feedback mechanisms—that is, regional evapotranspiration resulting in recycled precipitation ( Dominguez et al. 2006 ; Lamb et al. 2012 )—and large-scale processes in the form of atmospheric

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Shouping Wang, Qing Wang, and Graham Feingold

decomposed into mean saturation and turbulence parts; the former is directly computed from the ensemble mean supersaturation and the latter comes from the covariance R ′ S ′ . The turbulence contribution increases the mean CE rate by enhancing condensation in supersaturated regions ( S > 0) and reducing evaporation in subsaturated regions ( S < 0). The dominant component of the turbulence contribution is the covariance N ′ S ′ . For the liquid water flux budget, a close balance is reached between the

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Peter J. Hendricks, Robin D. Muench, and Gilbert R. Stegen

-March 1983 Marginal Ice Zone Experiment (MIZEX West). These datahave been used in estimating a mean midwinter upper layer heat balance for the MIZ. During a period whenthe ice edge was stationary the dominant source term in the heat budget was the advective input from northwardflow of relatively warm water beneath the ice edge. The associated mean heat flux per unit length of ice edgewas about 22 MW m-l, approximately equal to the heat required to melt the southward-moving ice. Heat wasalso input by

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W. G. Large

verticaldiffusion in the salt and heat budgets. Balancing the remaining heat by horizontal advection throughout the watercolumn results in a local minimum of too cold water at about 165-m depth. However, acceptable long-termsimulations are achieved if the required cold water is transported into the seasonal thermocline and isothermallayer only during the fall and winter months. Observations supporting this scenario are reviewed. Model sensitivity experiments with this balance show which combinations of surface

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Haruyasu Nagai

canopy, and simple representation is used for heat and water exchanges among the atmosphere, soil, and vegetation compared to the former models. Some models ( Yamada 1982 ; Meyers and Paw U 1987 ) calculate the radiation transfer in canopy and the heat and water budget on leaves with multilayer vegetation representation. However, few models of this type include soil processes to deal with the heat and water exchanges between the atmosphere and the ground surface. A new atmosphere

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Michael Mayer, Leopold Haimberger, John M. Edwards, and Patrick Hyder

) is to assume negligible temperature change of water (vapor) on its passage through the atmospheric column. This means that the divergence of lateral enthalpy transports associated with vapor transports balances vertical enthalpy fluxes associated with P and E ; that is, and these terms consequently cancel out. For energy budget diagnostics confined to the tropics one can also neglect the effect of snowfall. Equation (23) then simplifies to Equation (24) states that the net surface energy

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Kevin E. Trenberth and John T. Fasullo

subsurface storage of water substance and R is the runoff. Hence, if the changes in atmospheric and surface storage are negligible, the balance is between atmospheric moisture convergence and runoff. The vertically integrated energy budget is made up of net TOA radiation R T , the convergence of energy by the atmospheric winds, and the net surface flux of energy F s . The net radiation in turn consists of the incoming absorbed shortwave radiation (ASR) and the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), R T

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Mohamed S. Siam, Marie-Estelle Demory, and Elfatih A. B. Eltahir

: Atmospheric water vapor transport and the water balance of North America . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 96 , 720 – 734 . Rasmusson , E. M. , 1971 : A study of the hydrology of eastern North America using atmospheric vapor flux data . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 99 , 119 – 135 . Ruprecht , E. , and T. Kahl , 2003 : Investigation of the atmospheric water budget of the BALTEX area using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data . Tellus , 55A , 426 – 437 . Samba , G. , and D. Nganga , 2011 : Rainfall variability in Congo

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Bart Geerts and Peter V. Hobbs

CFA interacted dynamically with the planetary boundary layer, not only throughcooling produced by evaporating hydrometeors but also by a shallow downdraft immediately to the rear of therainshaft associated with the rainband. This study shows that the combined thermodynamic and cloud microphysical retrieval technique is a usefultool in analyzing force balances and assessing water and energy budgets, even in quite weak mesoscale precipitationsystems.1. Introduction In the first part of this

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R. F. Dale, W. M. L. Nelson, K. L. Scheeringa, R. G. Stuff, and H. F. Reetz

empirical site-specific water balance model was generalized to account for cropland drainage effectson soil moisture and evapotranspiration (ET). In predicting soil moisture for well-drained (WD) soils, usuallytotal water use is equated to infiltrated precipitation, stored soil moisture, and ET. In much of the eastern U.S. Corn Belt, however, row crop production is on soils which are poorly drained(PD) and underlain with perched water tables. These provide an additional source of soil water

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