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Bin Guan, Duane E. Waliser, and F. Martin Ralph

1. Introduction Characterized by enhanced water vapor transport in long and narrow corridors in the lower troposphere, atmospheric rivers (ARs) play important roles in the global water cycle ( Zhu and Newell 1998 ) and deliver precious freshwater to many arid/semiarid regions ( Guan et al. 2010 ; Dettinger et al. 2011 ; Rutz and Steenburgh 2012 ), but they can also represent a significant hazard around the globe due to the associated extreme wind and precipitation (e.g., Waliser and Guan

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Joseph Galewsky

temperature of last saturation but do not provide many additional potentially useful constraints on parameters such as the degree of moistening during transport from the last-saturation point or on the microphysical processes at the point of last saturation. Measurements of water vapor isotopic composition (e.g., Moyer et al. 1996 ; Webster and Heymsfield 2003 ; Worden et al. 2007 ; Sayres et al. 2010 ; Galewsky et al. 2007 , 2011 ) can potentially provide such constraints, however, and the goal of

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Sun Wong, Eric J. Fetzer, Baijun Tian, Bjorn Lambrigtsen, and Hengchun Ye

apparent heat source during precipitation events and results from phase transitions of water in the atmosphere. To have a complete description of atmospheric heating processes, it is necessary to know the atmospheric water vapor budget along with the atmospheric heating. The dynamical approach can also be applied to estimate apparent water vapor sink Q2 ( Schumacher et al. 2008 ; Shige et al. 2008 ; Yanai et al. 1973 ). Many estimates of apparent water vapor sink and heat source using the dynamical

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Haixia Liu, Ming Xue, R. James Purser, and David F. Parrish

1. Introduction The poor knowledge of finescale spatial and temporal distributions of water vapor is partly responsible for the slow improvement in quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPF). The International H 2 O Project (IHOP_2002, 13 May through 25 June 2002; Weckwerth et al. 2004 ) was conducted over the central Great Plains of the United States to investigate, as one of its goals, the four-dimensional distribution of atmospheric water vapor and its impact on QPF. During IHOP_2002, a

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Carl J. Schreck III, Lei Shi, James P. Kossin, and John J. Bates

demonstrate the utility of upper-tropospheric water vapor (UTWV) for diagnosing the divergent circulations associated with the MJO and equatorial waves. UTWV has the advantage of being observed directly by satellites, whereas χ must be calculated from numerical models. UTWV anomalies are generally associated with quasi-isentropic advection in the extratropics ( Soden and Fu 1995 ) and near the tropopause ( Sassi et al. 2001 ). In the tropical troposphere, however, convection becomes the dominant

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Ian J. Barton

provide a correction for atmospheric water vapor absorption. One of the first theoretical analyses of satellite-derived SST was presented in the classical paper of McMillin (1975) . The derivation of SST from infrared satellite data first requires “cloud detection” to ensure that there is a clear view of the surface. Cloud detection is more reliable during the daytime when the shortwave visible and near-infrared channels of the AVHRR can be used to detect reflected sunlight. Use of the 3.7- μ m data

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W. G. Blumberg, D. D. Turner, S. M. Cavallo, Jidong Gao, J. Basara, and A. Shapiro

enhance or suppress deep, moist convection. The regional geography also plays a role in influencing SGP precipitation. Multiple studies of the Great Plains nocturnal low-level jet (NLLJ; e.g., Blackadar 1957 ; Bonner 1968 ; Stensrud 1996 ) have shown that it has a geographic dependence (e.g., Holton 1967 ; Wexler 1961 ; Shapiro et al. 2016 ) and facilitates nocturnal convection and heavy rain events through water vapor transport and lifting ( Means 1954 ; Pitchford and London 1962 ; Maddox

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O. Bock and M. Nuret

during the AMMA EOP. However, the assessment of NWP models makes sense only when independent observations are used. Hence, in the present work we use precipitable water vapor (PWV) estimates provided by a network of ground-based global positioning system (GPS) receivers, the data of which are not presently assimilated into the currently used NWP models. The GPS technique is known to provide very accurate estimates of PWV (usually considered at the level 1–2 kg m −2 ) with high temporal resolution

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Olivier Pauluis

temperature and humidity as well as the partitioning of the energy transport between sensible and latent heat. Previous studies ( Pauluis and Held 2002a , b ; Goody 2003 ) have shown that the presence of water vapor greatly reduces the ability of the atmosphere to convert internal energy into kinetic energy. This paper argues that the impact of water vapor on the production of kinetic energy can be captured by idealized thermodynamic cycles. The Carnot cycle, named after Sadi Carnot, is the best known

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Sophie Bastin, Cédric Champollion, Olivier Bock, Philippe Drobinski, and Frédéric Masson

: GPS meteorology: Remote sensing of the atmospheric water vapor using the global positioning system. J. Geophys. Res. , 97 , 15787 – 15801 . Bock , O. , and Coauthors , 2004 : GPS water vapor tomography project: Description and first results of the ESCOMPTE field experiment. Phys. Chem. Earth , 29 , 149 – 157 . Champollion , C. , F. Masson , M. N. Bouin , A. Walpersdorf , E. Doerflinger , O. Bock , and J. Van Baelen , 2005 : GPS water vapour tomography: Preliminary

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