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Steven A. Smith, David C. Fritts, and Thomas E. Vanzandt

1404 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VOL. 44, No. 10 Evidence for a Saturated Spectrum of Atmospheric Gravity Waves STEVEN A. SMITH* AND DAVID C. Ih'~ITTS Geophysical Institute and Department of Physics, University of Alaska, Fairbankz. AL 99775 THOMAS E. VANZANDT Aeronomy Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO 80505 (Manuscript received 31 March

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Elinor R. Martin and Richard H. Johnson

in this elevated layer. The lack of tilt between the undulations in these layers suggests that wave energy is being trapped ( Koch et al. 2005 ), which will be explored further in section 3f . The maximum vertical motion associated with the bore was 4–5 m s −1 ( Fig. 3b ). Three distinct couplets of ascent and descent are seen in the profiler data in phase with the undulations in the SNR, supporting the hypothesis that this is an atmospheric internal undular bore. The first couplet contains the

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S. Desjardins, J. Mailhot, and R. Lalbeharry

the ocean wave model WAM ( WAMDI Group 1988 ; Komen et al. 1994, hereinafter referred to as WAM4 ). In this formulation the surface stress (and hence the drag coefficient and the surface roughness length) depends on the sea state. The implication is that in the marine atmospheric boundary layer wind-generated ocean waves may play an important role on the evolution of mesoscale and synoptic-scale weather systems, through the modulation of the surface fluxes of momentum, heat, and moisture

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Samuel F. Potter, Geoffrey K. Vallis, and Jonathan L. Mitchell

facilitates inspection for wave mean–flow interaction. 3. Description of parameter end members To gain insight into how the nondimensional parameters change the atmospheric circulation we look at the climatological values of zonal-mean zonal winds, mass streamfunction, meridional eddy momentum flux , and zonal-mean temperature for the end members of the parameter space. The results are averaged over the last 2200 days of 3000-day integrations. Since our experiments only change one nondimensional variable

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Salvatore Pascale, Simona Bordoni, Sarah B. Kapnick, Gabriel A. Vecchi, Liwei Jia, Thomas L. Delworth, Seth Underwood, and Whit Anderson

increasing model atmospheric spatial resolution ( Fig. 4 ) results in a great improvement in the modeled wind variability in the GoC, particularly at the synoptic time scales (≤10 days). In this time window, the summertime GoC wind variability is mainly associated with the passage of tropical easterly waves (TEWs) or tropical cyclones (TCs)—often triggered by a TEW (e.g., Lorenz and Hartmann 2006 )—south of the GoC ( Serra et al. 2008 , 2010 ; Corbosiero et al. 2009 ; Wood and Ritchie 2013 ). The low

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Konstantinos Menelaou, David A. Schecter, and M. K. Yau

et al. 1999 ; Hendricks and Schubert 2010 ; Naylor and Schecter 2014 ). Despite an extensive body of literature on TC instabilities, the role of inertia–gravity (IG) wave radiation is usually overlooked or tacitly assumed to be inconsequential. This paper is an effort to improve current understanding of the potential importance of IG wave radiation in destabilizing TCs by revisiting the fundamentals. In simplified models of the fluid dynamics that filter out IG waves and acoustic waves, a

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Terrence R. Nathan, Dustin F. P. Grogan, and Shu-Hua Chen

). While in transit, the SMD absorbs, emits, and scatters radiation to affect the energy balance of the atmosphere and the surface below ( Miller and Tegen 1998 ). In turn, the dust-induced change in the energy balance affects the atmospheric circulation and consequently the transport of SMD ( Miller et al. 2014 ). African easterly waves (AEWs) are among the circulation features that contribute to the mobilization and transport of SMD ( Karyampudi and Carlson 1988 ; Jones et al. 2003 ; Knippertz and

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Jianqi Sun, Jing Ming, Mengqi Zhang, and Shui Yu

) in June 2017. b. Atmospheric circulations associated with the south China June rainfall from a climate perspective The case study in the last section indicates that the Northern Hemispheric mid- to high-latitude wave train pattern and the Southern Hemispheric atmospheric circulation are strongly coupled with the PJ pattern over East Asia and consequently contributed to the intense rainfall over south China in June 2017. In this section, the atmospheric circulations related to the south China June

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Qi Hu and Song Feng

basin-scale SST anomalies excite atmospheric circulation anomalies of planetary scales. These planetary-scale waves in the atmosphere would retrograde owing to the β effect ( Holton 2004 ) and create an upstream effect of the AMO in North America. These retrograding planetary waves were observable in the AMO-driven circulation anomalies from the simulations shown in Hu et al. (2011 , see their Fig. 8). These AMO- and ENSO-driven waves result in different precipitation anomaly distributions in

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John P. Boyd and Cheng Zhou

. REFERENCES Andrews , D. G. , J. R. Holton , and C. B. Leovy , 1987 : Middle Atmosphere Dynamics . International Geophysical Series, Vol. 40, Academic Press, 489 pp . Boyd , J. P. , 1985 : Barotropic equatorial waves: The non-uniformity of the equatorial beta-plane. J. Atmos. Sci. , 42 , 1965 – 1967 . Boyd , J. P. , 2001 : Chebyshev and Fourier Spectral Methods . Dover, 630 pp . Chapman , S. , and R. S. Lindzen , 1970 : Atmospheric Tides . D. Reidel, 200 pp . Hough , S. S

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