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G. S. Young, T. N. Sikora, and N. S. Winstead

direction. Patterns in SAR backscatter from the ocean result from corresponding modulations of the centimeter-scale wind-induced wave state by both oceanic and atmospheric phenomena. Given the aforementioned high resolution of typical SARs, and their order 100–1000-km swath widths, they are ideal instruments for sensing the sea surface signatures of those phenomena over a wide range of scales. Examples of signatures of oceanic phenomena imaged by SAR include swell, internal waves, surface currents, and

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Robert S. Gaza and Lance F. Bosart

314 WEATHER AND FORECASTING VOLUME5Trough-Merger Characteristics over North America ROBERT S. GAZA* AND LANCE F. BOSARTDepartment of Atmospheric Science, State University of New York at Albany, Albany, New York(Manuscript ~:eived 20 October 1989, in final form January 1990)ABSTRACT Split flow, defined by the presence of two separate westerly airstreams in the mid- and upper troposphere, iscommon in middle

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Dan Bikos, John Weaver, and Brian Motta

into supercells that produced the destructive tornadoes in central Oklahoma. 2. Synoptic overview Upper-air analyses from 1200 UTC on 3 May 1999 depicted an intensifying long-wave trough over the western United States. A large jet maximum was digging south along the northern California coast, and a smaller jet maximum was analyzed along the southern Arizona and New Mexico border ( Fig. 1a ). GOES water vapor imagery shows a patch of cirrus associated with the smaller jet streak farther to the south

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Timothy A. Coleman and Kevin R. Knupp

funded by a grant from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA Grant NA07OAR4600493). REFERENCES Bernstein, B. C. , and Johnson R. H. , 1994 : A dual-Doppler radar study of an OK PRE-STORM heat burst event . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 122 , 259 – 273 . Bosart, L. F. , and Seimon A. , 1988 : Case study of an unusually intense atmospheric gravity wave . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 116 , 1857 – 1886 . Bradshaw, J. T. , Murphy R. A. , and Pence K. J. , 1999 : The Alabama gravity wave

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J. Tenenbaum

: Atmospheric Data Analysis. Cambridge University Press, 457 pp. Helfand, H. M., J. C. Jusem, J. Pfaendtner, J. Tenenbaum, and E. Kalnay, 1986: The effect of a gravity wave drag parameteriza- tion scheme on GLA fourth order GCM forecasts. Proc. Short- and Medium Range Numerical Weather Prediction, Collection of Papers Presented at the WMO/ IUGG NWP Symp., Tokyo, Japan, World Meteorological Organization and International Union for Geodesy and Geophysics, 729- 742. Hoerling, M. P., T. K. Schaack, and

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Tom H. Durrant, Frank Woodcock, and Diana J. M. Greenslade

analysis and the 24-h forecast. Several factors may explain this difference. For the atmospheric models, the active error reduction during the analysis results in a relative jump in error as the model stabilizes during the forecast period. Four of the six wave models shown here do not assimilate wave data; therefore, this does not apply. In the case of the remaining two that do, assimilated information is retained longer in a wave model than an atmospheric model due to the longer temporal scales of

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Huming Luo and Zhenshan Lin

1. Introduction Historical observation data have an important role in climate prediction ( Gong and Chou 1999 ; Chou 1974 ). With the accumulation of climatic data, studies into climate factors such as atmospheric pressure, temperature, and precipitation are investigated more and more frequently. Most studies have only considered the effects of one of these climate factors or compared important characteristics after studying two of the factors separately (e.g., Brown 2000 ; Dai et al. 1997

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Ravi P. Shukla and James L. Kinter

2015 ); (ii) interactions between the tropics and extratropics expressed, for example, in the dispersion of Rossby waves in response to tropical tropospheric heating ( Hoskins and Karoly 1981 ); (iii) persistent ocean anomalies in both the tropics (e.g., Alexander 1992 ) and extratropics (e.g., Hartmann 2015 ); and (iv) persistent soil moisture anomalies that alter surface fluxes and atmospheric boundary layer stability (e.g., Koster et al. 2011 ; Guo et al. 2012 ). Considerable research into

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Jung-Hoon Kim, Robert D. Sharman, Stanley G. Benjamin, John M. Brown, Sang-Hun Park, and Joseph B. Klemp

and Chun 2010 , 2011 ; Lane et al. 2009 ; Sharman et al. 2012a ). The operational turbulence forecast system of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Aviation Weather Center (NOAA/AWC) makes use of predicted vertical velocity from the operational Rapid Refresh (RAP) forecast model ( Benjamin et al. 2016 ) as input into its mountain-wave turbulence prediction algorithm. Recently, unrealistically large areas of the light-or-greater (LOG) intensity turbulence with spurious mountain-wave

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Louisa B. Nance and Bradley R. Colman

subcritical to supercritical flow ( Durran 1990 ). Although the hydraulic analog provides a simple context for describing the dynamics involved in the generation of a downslope windstorm, it does not provide much practical assistance to operational forecasters. To apply this analog, one must specify an effective depth of the fluid. This depth is determined by the process (wave breaking, static stability layering, or capping by a mean-state critical level) promoting the development of an atmospheric

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