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John Lillibridge, Remko Scharroo, Saleh Abdalla, and Doug Vandemark

.g., Jackson et al. 1992 ; Liu et al. 2000 ; Vandemark et al. 2004 ) predict that differences between Ka and Ku bands are expected. Using optical techniques, Cox and Munk (1954) were able to establish a relationship between wind speed and ocean surface mean square slope (MSS). Assuming a quasi-specular reflection backscatter is inversely proportional to MSS, which can be divided into two components: one due to gravity waves and the other due to centimeter-scale gravity–capillary waves. For a one

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Ke Huang, Weiqing Han, Dongxiao Wang, Weiqiang Wang, Qiang Xie, Ju Chen, and Gengxin Chen

responds to the global climate variability and change ( Song and Colberg 2011 ; Balmaseda et al. 2013a ). Wind-driven Kelvin and Rossby waves and Rossby waves reflected from the eastern ocean boundary are observed to be important in causing the semiannual cycle of the surface and subsurface currents in the equatorial Indian Ocean ( Wyrtki 1973 ; Anderson and Carrington 1993 ; Schott et al. 1997 ; Reppin et al. 1999 ; Iskandar et al. 2009 ; Chen et al. 2015 ; Nagura and McPhaden 2016 ). In

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Eric Werner Schulz

1. Introduction The role of small-scale waves in air–sea interaction has been explored in recent decades. At the microbreaker scale (wavelength around a few centimeters), their importance for wave breaking and the associated exchange of gases (e.g., Thorpe 1982 ; Keeling 1993 ), generation of marine aerosols ( Bortkovskii 1987 ; Ling 1993 ), enhancement to momentum flux via breaking waves ( Donelan 1990 ), and resultant mixing in the ocean ( Rapp and Melville 1990 ) have been examined in

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Zhongxiang Zhao and Matthew H. Alford

superposition is nearly identical to that obtained from harmonic analysis. However, additional information is contained in the separated signals. The model to be solved for is a mode-1 wave propagating in a direction θ relative to the T/P track: where x is the along-track coordinate, t is time, ω 0 is the M 2 tidal frequency, and k 0 is the wavenumber of a mode-1 M 2 internal tide (determined from climatological ocean stratification profiles; see the appendix ). At each along-track location

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Masatoshi Miyamoto, Eitarou Oka, Daigo Yanagimoto, Shinzou Fujio, Maki Nagasawa, Genta Mizuta, Shiro Imawaki, Masao Kurogi, and Hiroyasu Hasumi

considered to be mainly baroclinic planetary Rossby waves, based on its westward phase speed ( Chelton and Schlax 1996 ) and nonlinear mesoscale eddies ( Chelton et al. 2011 ). Such surface mesoscale variability transports heat and dissolved materials in the global ocean, with amounts comparable to those by large-scale circulation (e.g., Roemmich and Gilson 2001 ; Dong et al. 2014 ; Zhang et al. 2014 ). On the other hand, deep mesoscale variability, which cannot be detected by satellite altimeter, has

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S. Zieger, J. Vinoth, and I. R. Young

1. Introduction Many oceanographic applications require the compilation of long-term databases of accurate oceanic properties (in the present case, significant wave height H s and wind speed U 10 ). Historically, such wave climate data are gathered through the deployment of oceanographic buoys and more recently though the use of numerical models ( Caires et al. 2004 ). Both approaches have significant deficiencies. In situ buoy data have obvious limitations in terms of geographical and

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Julien Emile-Geay and Mark A. Cane

less effective than low-latitude winds. Since it is all too easy for the reader to get lost in the mathematical details, it may be worthwhile to give a brief informal account of the approach we will take. We wish to find the ocean’s response to a periodic wind forcing. As in CS81 , we write the solution as a sum of a forced part and a free part. Both are made up of forced or free long equatorial Kelvin waves and long Rossby waves, the only modes that exist in the interior of the basin at low

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Yanwei Zhang and James N. Moum

were deployed on National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA’s) Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) mooring at 0°, 140°W at depths of 29, 49, and 84 m. Each unit was equipped with two fast thermistors, a pressure sensor, a compass, and three orthogonally positioned linear accelerometers. Temperature ( T ) was sampled at 10 Hz and its time derivative ( T t ) at 120 Hz. The accelerometers reveal that the χ pods experience a convoluted motion, primarily resulting from surface wave pumping

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Leonel Romero and W. Kendall Melville

-rate source term in modeling the fetch-limited evolution of wind waves. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 33 , 1274 – 1298 . Alves , J. H. G. M. , D. Greenslade , and M. L. Banner , 2002 : Impact of a saturation-dependent dissipation source function on operational hindcasts of wind waves in the Australian region. Global Atmos. Ocean Syst. , 8 , 239 – 267 . Alves , J. H. G. M. , M. L. Banner , and I. R. Young , 2003 : Revisiting the Pierson–Moskowitz asymptotic limits for fully developed wind

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Peter A. E. M. Janssen and Miguel Onorato

1. Introduction Since the beginning of the 1990s, there has been a rapid increase in the understanding of the generation of extreme waves in the open ocean. Different mechanisms have been found to be relevant for the formation of such events [see Kharif and Pelinovsky (2003) for a review]. A number of experimental and theoretical works ( Janssen 2003 ; Onorato et al. 2001 , 2004 , 2005 ) have shown that, provided that the spectra are narrow banded and waves are steep, deep-water third

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