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Andrew Hoell, Andrea E. Gaughan, Shraddhanand Shukla, and Tamuka Magadzire

1. Introduction Southern Africa precipitation during December–March (DJFM), the height of the rainy season, is closely related with variations of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO; e.g., Nicholson and Entekhabi 1986 ; Manatsa et al. 2015 ) and the subtropical Indian Ocean dipole (SIOD; Behera et al. 2000 ; Behera and Yamagata 2001 ; Reason 2001 ; Washington and Preston 2006 ) modes of climate variability. Further, recent research has shown that the combined effects of ENSO and SIOD

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Huancui Hu and Francina Dominguez

into the NAM region ( Douglas et al. 1993 ; Schmitz and Mullen 1996 ; Adams and Comrie 1997 ; Higgins et al. 1997 ; Bosilovich et al. 2003 ). However, the elevated topography of the SMO acts as a barrier for lower-level moisture that comes from the Gulf of Mexico and blocks it from entering the NAM region. Consequently, the Gulf of California (GOC) and eastern tropical Pacific Ocean are also important sources for NAM precipitation ( Hales 1972 ; Brenner 1974 ; Carleton 1986 ). One of the main

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Mark R. Jury

1. Introduction Understanding and predicting the Caribbean climate is important, because the densely populated coastal zones are vulnerable to sea level rise and temperature extremes associated with global warming, and storm surges and flood events from tropical cyclones and troughs ( Gable et al. 1990 ; Maul 1993 ; Peterson et al. 2002 ; Lewsey et al. 2004 ). Climatic features from North and South America, and from the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans meet in the Caribbean ( Fig. 1 ). Sea

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Vasubandhu Misra

Amazon, French Guiana, Suriname, Guyana, and Venezuela. This region is hereafter referred as the EA and is outlined in Fig. 1a . Given the EA’s close proximity to the equator, the motivation for this paper is to understand if local processes, such as the diurnal variation, amplify the remote ENSO forcing. 2. Model description and data a. Model description The Center for Ocean–Land–Atmosphere Studies (COLA) coupled climate model ( Misra et al. 2007 ; Misra and Marx 2007 ) is used in this study. Its

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Idar Barstad and Ronald B. Smith

information is often truncated by shielding terrain ( White et al. 2003 ), and in addition there are problems such as refraction, particularly for short-wave radars. Even in more traditional rain gauge networks, the accuracy might be poor because of factors like the airflow around the collector ( Yang et al. 1998 ). In snow drift cases this is particularly true (H. Olafsson 2003, personal communication). Over the last three decades, many targeted field programs have been carried out around the globe, for

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Kuk-Hyun Ahn and Scott Steinschneider

emerge from this figure. First, for state 1, the SSTA pattern is asymmetric across low and high occurrence years. A significant springtime cold anomaly in the eastern Caribbean and north tropical Atlantic Ocean precedes summers with very few state 1 occurrences. There are also positive (albeit statistically insignificant) SSTAs off the eastern coast of the United States and a cold anomaly south of Greenland, consistent with a positive NAT pattern. Furthermore, there is a clear upper-level wave train

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Balázs M. Fekete, Ulrich Looser, Alain Pietroniro, and Richard D. Robarts

with infrequent revisit periods. Modern dataloggers virtually eliminate the limitations on water level observational frequency, allowing for the full recording of the flood-wave propagation at a particular river section. In contrast, the satellite platforms under consideration for discharge monitoring tend to have a weekly or biweekly ground-track repeat cycle. While overlapping swaths can allow satellite observations more frequently than the ground-track revisit time, the resulting compromise

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Sarith P. P. Mahanama, Randal D. Koster, Rolf H. Reichle, and Max J. Suarez

seasonal prediction since it is through such anomalies and their links to atmospheric processes that predictive skill is realized. The lifetime of land surface anomalies is shorter than that of ocean anomalies. Largely because of this, studies of land moisture impacts on forecasts (e.g., Delworth and Manabe 1988 ; Fennessy and Shukla 1999 ; Liu and Avissar 1999a , b ; Dirmeyer 2000 ; Douville 2003 ; Mahanama and Koster 2003 ; Koster et al. 2004 ) have lagged behind those of ocean impacts [e

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Robert J. Joyce, John E. Janowiak, Phillip A. Arkin, and Pingping Xie

-of-the-art global numerical models perform poorly in key areas of the globe, such as over Indonesia, and there have been suggestions that the poor performance is related to improper modeling of the diurnal cycle ( Yang and Slingo 2001 ). While global rain gauge data are routinely available around the world, that information is sparse in many important regions and is practically nonexistent over the oceans. Many gauge locations report only 6-h or even daily amounts. Remotely sensed estimates of precipitation

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Robert J. Zamora, Edward P. Clark, Eric Rogers, Michael B. Ek, and Timothy M. Lahmers

1. Introduction This paper presents an extensive look at the 23 July 2008 record flood in the Babocomari River basin located in southeastern Arizona ( Fig. 1 ) from both a meteorological and hydrological perspective. The Babocomari River is a major tributary of the San Pedro River and drains an area of 792 km 2 . The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT) program ( Ralph et al. 2005 ) instrumented this river basin in May 2008 in collaboration with

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