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David B. Johnson

concentrations (cm-~) corresponding to these mixing ratios areindicated by the diagonal dashed lines.2084 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VOLUME37CONDENSATION MODEL 1.28 I 0.40 1.15 I 0.38 MODIFICATION 10.34 I 0.250.38 0.26 MODIFICATION 20.45 0.240.50 0.24SQUIRES' SOLUTION 0.44 I 0,23 0

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Richard Rotunno and Rossella Ferretti

documentation ( Binder et al. 1996 ) and study ( Doswell et al. 1998 , and above references) of the 1994 Piedmont flood, our strategy is to use this case as the starting point for deeper analysis. As an introduction to the 1994 Piedmont case, consider Fig. 2 , which contains a time sequence from a numerical simulation (details given below) of the weather over Europe on 5 November 1994 of the near-ground airflow and precipitable water during the most intense rainfall in Piedmont. Figure 2 shows an

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Manuel E. López and Wallace E. Howell

REFERENCESCrawford, Norman H., 1965: Some illustrations of the hydro logical consequences of weather modification from synthetic models, ttuman Dimensions of Weather Modification, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 41-57.Howell, Wallace E., 1953: Local weather of the Chicama Valley (Peru). Archly Meteor., Geophy., Bioklimatol., Ser. B, 5, 41-51.Kuettner, Joachim, 1959: The rotor flow in the lee of mountains. GRD Research Note No. 6, Project 7623 Task 76230, Air Force Cambridge, Research Center

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H. Isaka, R. Pejoux, and G. Soulage

silver iodidenuclei.1. Introduction After many years of empirical work, during whichtime everyone organizing a weather modification experiment has released the maximum number of nucleiconsistent with his funds and techniques, it seems thatany further progress on the subject requires a seedingof clouds at a determined point and moment, a~d witha number and a kind of ice nuclei, selected accordingto the type of clouds and the desired type ofmodification. To attain this, it is necessary to have

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Louis J. Battan

'. Meteor., 9, 227-242. , S. E. Reynolds, and J. 'H. Harrell, 1951: Possibilities for cloud seeding as determined by a study of cloud height versus precipitation. J. Meteor., 8, 416-418.Chalker, W. R., 1949: Vertical stability in regions of airmass showers. Bull Araer. Meteor. Soc., 30, 145-147.Elliott, R. D., 1958: California storm characteristics and weather modification. J. Meteor., 15, 486-493.Koenig, L. R., 1963: The glaciating behavior of small cumulo nimbus clouds. J. Atmos. Sci., 20, 29

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Jan F. Meirink and Vladimir K. Makin

the sensitivity of the atmosphere to sea spray evaporation over the midlatitude oceans. This is done using the numerical weather prediction (NWP) high-resolution limited-area model HiRLAM, which contains a comprehensive physics parameterization package for vertical diffusion, radiation, condensation, precipitation, and surface processes. The impact of spray is included in the form of modified air–sea surface heat fluxes, based on the bulk parameterization of Fairall et al. (1994) . We present two

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John H. Conover

southeast of the Kuril Islands which show asdark areas across the top of the picture. The largestline was 350 km in length and 5-24 km wide. The largescale cloud in the region of the plumes was one ofconvection shown by a hollow polygonal pattern,indicating a relatively shallow layer of convectiontopped by a stable layer. The surface weather mapshowed high pressure to the northeast with windsfrom an azimuth of about 75 deg at 5-S m sec~. Airtemperature was near + 1OC. Curvature of the largescale pattern

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Anthony R. Hansen, Alfonso Sutera, and Joseph J. Tribbia

demonstrates the highly nonlinear response and sensitivityof the CCM's to modifications in the parameterizationof physical processes. However, knowing that a specificphenomenon is missing in one version of the modelmay provide a direction for further investigations intothe mechanism of the weather regimes in the atmosphere and into the sources of the climatic error ofGCMs. For example, it could be argued that one ofthe most significant differences in the formulations ofthe two models is the Richardson

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M. A. Estoque

38JOURNAL OF METEOROLOGYVOLUME 14GRAPHICAL INTEGRATIONS OF A TWO-LEVEL MODEL By M. A. Estoque University of ChicagoI.2(Original manuscript received 26 June 1956; revised manuscript received 27 July 1956) ABSTRACTA prediction model representing a slight modification of a previous model (Estoque, 1956a) is presented.The prediction equations were integrated graphically to produce 24-hour 1000- and 500-millibar forecastsfor the month of January 1953

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William J. Moroz

modification as very cold air passes over thewarmer water during winter. Acknowledgments. The author wishes to acknowledgethe significant contributions during the planning,conduct and reporting of this investigation of Profs.G. C. Gill and E. W. Hewson of the University ofMichigan. He is also indebted to Messrs. C. H. Yangand A. D. Vernekar for their whole-hearted cooperation. Mr. D. Mark, Meteorologist in Charge of theMuskegon U. S. Weather Bureau Station and Mr. C.Van Den Brink of the U. S. Weather

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