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Hiroshi Yoshikado and Makoto Tsuchida

1804 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEORO'LOGY VOLUME35High Levels of Winter Air Pollution under the Influenceof the Urban Heat Island along the Shore of Tokyo Bay HIROSHI YOSHIKADONational Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, !baraki, Japan IVL~KOTO TSUCHIDA*Tsukuba University Graduate School, Tsukuba, lbaraki, Japan(Manuscript received 20 November 1995, in final form 4

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Humberto Silva III and Jay S. Golden

1. Introduction There are many developed models that can be used to evaluate the spatial variability of the urban heat island (UHI), such as the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF; Michalakes et al. 1998 ) and the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5; Alapaty et al. 1995 ). Both of these models are continuously developed and validated ( Chen and Dudhia 2001 ; White et al. 1999 ). However, they are both

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Xiao-Ming Hu, Petra M. Klein, Ming Xue, Julie K. Lundquist, Fuqing Zhang, and Youcun Qi

heat island (UHI) effect, in which near-surface temperatures in metropolitan areas are typically higher than in the surrounding rural areas ( Oke 1976 , 1982 ; Arnfield 2003 ). Biophysical hazards such as heat stress, air pollution, and associated public health problems have been linked to UHI development ( Zhang et al. 2009 ; Zhou and Shepherd 2010 ; Steeneveld et al. 2011 ; Chow et al. 2012 ; Fischer et al. 2012 ), which puts urban populations at even higher risks if the frequency of

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Peter Hoffmann and K. Heinke Schlünzen

that although no optimal method exists, the k -means-based methods usually perform well (e.g., Beck and Philipp 2010 ; Cahynová and Huth 2010 ; Huth 2010 ). As stated by Huth et al. (2008) , the circulation patterns should be regarded as purpose made. Therefore, each target parameter requires the construction of its own optimal classification. In this study, we construct a WPC computed with a k -means-based method for the target parameter urban heat island (UHI). Hamburg (Germany) is used as

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Fred M. Vukovich, William J. King, J. W. Dunn III, and J. J. B. Worth

form 27 January 1979) The observed surface and upper air temperature and wind field patterns on 8 June 1976 in St. Louis,Missouri, were analyzed aud compared with simulation results from a three-dimeusion~l hydrodynamicmodel. An urban heat island (1-2-C temperature difference between the urban and rural regions) persisted during the day. The daytime temperature differential was relatively' weak compared to that atnight Q-,5-C difference). In contrast, the urban heat island circulation was more

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Hiroshi Yoshikado

1. Introduction Increased air temperature in urban areas compared with surrounding rural areas is a well-known phenomenon called the urban heat island (UHI). This phenomenon is most clearly observed in large cities. In the case of Tokyo, the annual average temperature has increased at a rate of 3.2°C (100 yr) −1 for the period between 1931 and 2011 ( JMA 2012 ). For the same period, 17 observatories in remote small towns recorded an average temperature increase of 1.5°C (100 yr) −1 . This

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A. M. Droste, J. J. Pape, A. Overeem, H. Leijnse, G. J. Steeneveld, A. J. Van Delden, and R. Uijlenhoet

heat stress. The urban heat island (UHI)—that is, the difference in canopy air temperature between the rural background and the urban core—has been widely studied (e.g., Oke 1982 ; Arnfield 2003 ; Steeneveld et al. 2011 ; Heusinkveld et al. 2014 ). Cities experience enhanced radiation uptake during the day as a result of their lower albedo and high heat storage capacity. Because of the slow nocturnal heat release from the urban fabric to the atmosphere, cities cool down more slowly than their

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Ryosaku Ikeda and Hiroyuki Kusaka

1. Introduction Numerical studies on the urban heat island phenomenon have been actively performed to investigate its formation mechanisms. There are three main ways to describe the urban thermal environment: 1) slab model, 2) single-layer urban canopy model (e.g., Masson 2000 ; Kusaka et al. 2001 ; Harman et al. 2004 ; Best 2005 ; Kanda et al. 2005 ; Lee and Park 2008 ), and 3) multilayer urban canopy model (MUCM; e.g., Kondo and Liu 1998 ; Brown 2000 ; Hagishima et al. 2001 ; Vu et

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Jie Lu, S. Pal Arya, William H. Snyder, and Robert E. Lawson Jr.

Introduction A thermal plume is generated by an underlying heat island in the form of an area source. If the heating is confined to a finite area, a vertical thermal plume and associated circulation will develop due to the temperature (density) difference between the heat source and its environs. The plume stops rising as the temperature difference between the plume and its ambient vanishes due to the entrainment or mixing of fluid from a stable environment. Therefore, the height of a plume z

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Hiroyuki Kusaka and Fujio Kimura

Introduction The surface layer in cities is generally warmer than that of the surrounding areas. Near a city, the surface isotherms look like the topographic contours around an island. Thus, this phenomenon has become known as the urban heat island, which is clearly observed under atmospheric conditions of a clear sky and light wind. Many observational studies have provided us with essential ideas about the urban heat island phenomenon. These earlier studies have been summarized by Yoshino

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