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Anne Garnier, Jacques Pelon, Philippe Dubuisson, Michaël Faivre, Olivier Chomette, Nicolas Pascal, and David P. Kratz

1. Introduction The retrieval of cloud and aerosol radiative properties at the global scale is an important challenge for the understanding and surveying of climate change. In this respect, upper-level clouds are of particular interest since their microphysical characteristics are still poorly known despite their significant impact on the Earth radiation budget ( Stephens et al. 1990 ; Kristjánsson et al. 2000 ). The Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation ( CALIPSO

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Eva E. Borbas, W. Paul Menzel, Elisabeth Weisz, and Dezso Devenyi

function of fractional cloud cover. J. Geophys. Res. , 111 . D09S17, doi:10.1029/2005JD006272 . Tobin , D. C. , and Coauthors , 2006 : Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site atmospheric state best estimates for Atmospheric Infrared Sounder temperature and water vapor retrieval validation. J. Geophys. Res. , 111 . D09S14, doi:10.1029/2005JD006103 . Ware , R. , and Coauthors , 1996 : GPS sounding of the atmosphere from low earth orbit: Preliminary results. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 77

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Craig J. Donlon, W. Wimmer, I. Robinson, G. Fisher, M. Ferlet, T. Nightingale, and B. Bras

mounting flange from the bath wall. This minimizes any thermal gradients occurring at the cavity aperture—a notable problem in the CASOTS-I design. A high-emissivity paint is required for the internal cavity walls that provides a constant emissivity for the whole cavity, maximizes the radiant energy emitted at the cavity aperture, and minimizes reflection of external source stray radiation effects ( Robinson et al. 2010 ). There are two approaches to managing the internal surface of a thermal infrared

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D. D. Turner and U. Löhnert

boundary layer structure using ground-based infrared spectral radiance measurements . J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 16 , 323 – 333 . Stokes , G. M. , and S. E. Schwartz , 1994 : The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: Programmatic background and design of the Cloud and Radiation Testbed . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 75 , 1201 – 1221 . Taylor , K. E. , 2001 : Summarizing multiple aspects of model performance in a single diagram . J. Geophys. Res. , 106 , 7183 – 7192 . Turner

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Hironobu Iwabuchi, Soichiro Yamada, Shuichiro Katagiri, Ping Yang, and Hajime Okamoto

1. Introduction Cirrus clouds cover more than 20% of the earth’s surface and play a major role in the earth’s radiation budget ( Liou 1986 ; Stubenrauch et al. 2006 ). Various parameterizations of the microphysical processes associated with upper-tropospheric ice clouds in global climate models have led to significant variations in estimating radiative budgets, and improvement in the representation of these clouds within climate models is recognized as a challenge ( Waliser et al. 2009 ). A

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Yue Li, Gerald R. North, Ping Yang, and Bryan A. Baum

perspective when clouds are present, the magnitude of OLR is closely related to cloud-top temperature. By using cloud products from a polar-orbiting imager such as MODIS to investigate various tropical waves, this work can be extended easily to cloud products based on heritage sensors such as the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR; Heidinger and Pavolonis 2009 ) and the High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS; Wylie et al. 2005 ). Cloud products from these two sensors would extend

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Thomas H. Vonder Haar

-free days. REFERENCESMorrissey, J. F., and F. Y. Brousaides, 1970: Tmnperature in duced errors in the ML-476 humidity data. J. Appl. 9, 8O5-808.Gringorten, I. I., H. A. Salmela, I. Solomon and J. Sharp, 1966: Atmospheric ttumidity Atlas--Northern Hemisphere. U. S. Air Force Surveys in Geophysics, No. 186.Application of Simultaneous Infrared Radiation Measurements and Cloud Photographs from Satellites THOMAS H. VONDER HAAR~Space Science and Engineering Center, The

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Shruti A. Upadhyaya, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, Jonathan J. Gourley, and Robert J. Kuligowski

GOES-17 satellites, other new generation GEO sensors include Spinning Enhanced Visible Infrared Imager (SEVIRI; Meteosat-8 , Meteosat-9 , Meteosat-10 , Meteosat-11 ), Multichannel Scanning Unit-Geostationary (MSU-GS; Electro-L N1–2 ), Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI; Himawari-8 and Himawari-9 ), Advanced Geosynchronous Radiation Imager (AGRI; FY-4A ), Advanced Meteorological Imager (AMI; GEO-KOMPSAT-2A ), all with more than 10 spectral channels. These next generation GEO satellites provide

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Peer Fietzek, Björn Fiedler, Tobias Steinhoff, and Arne Körtzinger

circumstances can be found in Fietzek et al. (2011) . b. pCO 2 measurements The first measurements of dissolved CO 2 were developed for medical applications in the 1950s. These were based on wet-chemical pH determination behind a Teflon membrane ( Stow et al. 1957 ; Severinghaus and Bradley 1958 ). Today, optical CO 2 measuring techniques are prevailing. One method is to detect and quantify CO 2 molecules within an equilibrated gas stream by means of direct absorption in the infrared (IR) region of

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Claude E. Duchon

JusE 1964 C L A U D E E. D U C H O N 327Estimates of the Infrared Radiation Temperature Correction for Cylindrical Temperature Sensors~ CLAUDE -.. DUCttONThe University of Texas(Manuscript received 15 October 1963, in revised form 13 December 1963)ABSTRACT A series of nomograms is presented showing the longwave radiation temperature correction for

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