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of a plane surface, viz, from 3 to 5 per cent.If water had bands of strong selective reflection in the infra-red the albedo of clouds might be higher than the above esti-mates.The r6blanket effects of clouds must therefore be due prin-cipally to their high emissivity (for those radiations emittedby the earth) hence to their high ef6ciency as a heat radiator.By definition the Kirchhoff radiator (so-called c r black body )is one in which the reflecting power is nil and which is per-fectly opaque

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November 1970 861UDC 551.515.13:551.576.11:551.507.362.2:551.521.14(265.2) "1962.03"METEOROLOGICAL SATELLITE INFRARED VIEWS OF CLOUD GROWTHASSOCIATED WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF SECONDARY CYCLONESWILLIAM E. SHENKGoddard Space Fliyht Center, NASA, Greenbelt, Md.ABSTRACTDuring March 1962, the cloud changes associated with the predevelopment and development-periods of twosecondary cyclones in the North Pacific Ocean were viewed on at least two successive days by the 8-12p "window"channel of the TIROS

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UDC 661.624. :651.M)7.382.2(100)"323"Stratospheric Temperature Variations in Autumn-Northern and Southern Hemispheres ComparedSIGMUND FRITZ-National Environmental Satellite Service, NOAA, Suitland, Md.RAYMOND M. MclNTURFF-National Weather Service, NOAA, Hillcrest Heights, Md.ABSTRACT-The Satellite Infrared Spectrometer onboard pockets of warm air remain in spite of the seasonal coolingNimbus 3 has a 5 cm-1 spectral interval centered at due to decreasing solar radiation over each hemisphere.669

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means based upon either first 32' F. minimurn or first radi-ation and means based upon first advection are not sogreat' as in the spring.Mean lengt'h of the potential growing season (definedas the number of days between last spring and first falladvect'ion frost) is from 15 to 32 days longer than the32' F. minimum-based definition of growiny season.The number of radiation frosts i11tervening betweenlast spring or first fall radiation host and their associatedseasonal advect'ion frost varies

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-perature denotes the energy of molecular motions that we callheat, and these motions, whether undulations or vibrations,move outward from the sun thru the ether of space with greatrapidity and in every direction. The earth in its revolutionabout the sun intercepts less than one two-billionth of theenergy of the solar radiation.An iron ball attached to a chain so that it may be heatedred hot and held up in the school room offers a most excellentexample for illustrating and explaining solar radiation, aswell as

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Dayton G. Vincent, Govind B. Pant, and Harold J. Edmon Jr.

, generation of APE. The present paper examinesAPE generation of an extratropical cyclone system ina quasi-Lagrangian frame of reference ~ the systemmoves across the United States. The generation of APE is accomplished by solarand infrared radiation, latent heat release, and sensibleheat exchange with the earth's surface. Because ofdifficulties encountered in obtaining values of thesediabatic heating processes, only a few studies of APEgeneration have been conducted. Danard (1966) examined the role of

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Ismail Yucel, W. James Shuttleworth, R. T. Pinker, L. Lu, and S. Sorooshian

/or damage. Clouds play a critical role in the atmospheric energy balance and the prediction of weather. They have a strong effect on solar heating by reflecting solar radiation back into space, and on the thermal cooling by intercepting infrared radiation emitted by the underlying earth and atmosphere and re-emitting part of this energy back to the surface. The presence of overlying clouds is, of course, also linked strongly to precipitation. Thus, clouds provide the primary link between the two surface

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asingle prism monochromator. The stray radiation at650 cm." was about 3 percent, when operated with itsh'ernst glower source. Stray radiation during t,he experi-men t was negligible because the shorter infrared wavelengthradiances of the atmosphere were much less than thoseof the Nernst glower source. Similarly, tiny contribut,ionof diffuse solar sky radiation to the strap radiation wascomparatively small. The instrument, was operated inthe single-beam energy recording mode. A rock salt.prism [SI and

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Vladimir M. Krasnopolsky, Michael S. Fox-Rabinovitz, and Alexei A. Belochitski

1. Introduction One of the main problems in development and implementation of state-of-the-art numerical climate and weather prediction models is the complexity of physical processes involved. Some of the model physics parameterizations, such as radiation, are time consuming even for most powerful modern supercomputers, and because of that are calculated less frequently than other model physics components and model dynamics. This may negatively affect the accuracy of a model’s physics

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G. F. Herman and W. T. Johnson

A well-known feature of the radiation budget of theGLAS GCM is that the solar radiation absorbed bythe earth-atmosphere system is generally simulatedvery well, while the model systematically underestimates the amount of energy lost to space by infrared radiation. It is believed that the source of theproblem in the infrared is the model's unrealisticoptical properties of clouds in this region of thespectrum. All clouds in the model, including thosethat are intended to represent atmospheric

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