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R. Pacione and F. Vespe

the framework of the Meteorological Applications of GPS Integrated Column Water Vapor Measurements in the Western Mediterranean (MAGIC) project ( Haase et al. 2001 ), GPS zenith tropospheric delays have been, since January 1999, routinely delivered and monitored at the Centro di Geodesia Spaziale of the Italian Space Agency (ASI) in Matera, for a network covering the central Mediterranean area. The network has a higher resolution over the Italian territory due to the fact that all the available

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Oliver Krueger and Hans von Storch

found that REMO describes wind speeds realistically. Weisse et al. (2005) show that surface wind fields and their statistics are homogeneous and reasonably well simulated over the sea in coastDat. The simulation of (extreme) wind speeds and their statistics over land highly depends on the physical parameterization scheme. Kunz et al. (2010) note—for a different model version of REMO—that REMO is capable of simulating extreme wind speeds over land. We therefore assume that the wind fields and

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Maristella Berta, Annalisa Griffa, Marcello G. Magaldi, Tamay M. Özgökmen, Andrew C. Poje, Angelique C. Haza, and M. Josefina Olascoaga

radar data and models: Results from the TOSCA experiment in the Ligurian Current (North Western Mediterranean Sea) . Prog. Oceanogr. , 128 , 15 – 29 , doi: 10.1016/j.pocean.2014.08.004 . Bouffard, J. , Vignudelli S. , Cipollini P. , and Menard Y. , 2008 : Exploiting the potential of an improved multimission altimetric data set over the coastal ocean . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 35 , L10601 , doi: 10.1029/2008GL033488 . Breivik, Ø. , Allen A. , Maisondieu C. , and Olagnon M. , 2013

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Yanwu Zhang, Knut Streitlien, James G. Bellingham, and Arthur B. Baggeroer

currents and convection in the central Greenland Sea during the winter of 1988–89. J. Geophys. Res , 98 , (C8), . 14401 – 14421 . 10.1029/93JC00658 Schott, F. , Send U. , Fischer J. , Stramma L. , and Desaubies Y. , 1996 : Observations of deep convection in the Gulf of Lions, northern Mediterranean, during the winter of 1991/92. J. Phys. Oceanogr , 26 , 505 – 524 . 10.1175/1520-0485(1996)026<0505:OODCIT>2.0.CO;2 SonTek , 1997 : Acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) operation manual

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Stanford B. Hooker and André Morel

started in Agadir, Morocco, on 4 September 1999 and ended in Toulon, France, on 4 October. The cruise track began with a detailed study (3 days) in the productive upwelling zone off the northwest African coast and ended within the much less productive Mediterrranean Sea waters ( Fig. 1a ). The latter included 5-day studies of an ultra-oligotrophic regime in the Eastern Mediterranean (southwest of Crete) and a mesotrophic site in the Ligurian Sea (northwest of Corsica). In between the long

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Kevin M. Schmidt, Sebastiaan Swart, Chris Reason, and Sarah-Anne Nicholson

1. Introduction Mid- to high-latitude regions in the Southern Ocean are host to the strongest wind fields at the ocean surface. These strong winds (speeds > 20 m s −1 ; Yuan 2004 ) significantly impact upper-ocean properties and processes, such as mixed layer dynamics, Ekman processes, and air–sea exchange. Exchanges in heat, moisture, and momentum at the air–sea interface are facilitated by sea surface winds. In addition to driving physical processes at the sea surface, these winds also have

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Lijing Cheng, Jiang Zhu, Franco Reseghetti, and Qingping Liu

, Mark III CTD system, which was calibrated before the cruise. During their descent, four T7 probes were launched using Sippican Mark-9 Launcher Acquisition Systems (for details, see Hallock and Teague 1992 ). They are available in the National Oceanographic Data Center’s (NODC’s) XBT quality tests references table. Seventy-one Sippican DB probes from the western Mediterranean Sea were used ( Fig. 5b ). This group includes 27 profiles from comparisons carried out in 2003–04 (group 2.1), previously

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M. Portabella and A. Stoffelen

important forcing in the tropics. Moreover, ocean circulation and ENSO play a key role in the earth’s climate. Besides tropical needs, there are other obvious applications of such wind stress product included in the modeling of the Antarctic circumpolar current, forcing of the southern oceans, research on the variability and occurrence of storms, and forcing in complex basins, for example, the Mediterranean. A continuous wind stress time series of high temporal and spatial resolution would aid in the

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M.-H. Rio, R. Santoleri, R. Bourdalle-Badie, A. Griffa, L. Piterbarg, and G. Taburet

. W. , 2008 : Three-dimensional reconstruction of oceanic mesoscale currents from surface information . J. Geophys. Res. , 113 , C09005 , doi: 10.1029/2007JC004692 . Isern-Fontanet, J. , Shinde M. , and Gonzalez-Haro C. , 2014 : On the transfer function between surface fields and the geostrophic stream function in the Mediterranean Sea . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 44 , 1406 , doi: 10.1175/JPO-D-13-0186.1 . Jerlov, N. G. , 1968 : Optical Oceanography. Elsevier Oceanography Series, Vol

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Darren L. Jackson and Gary A. Wick

during 1999 and binned onto a 0.5° spatial resolution grid map. Bias with the AMMI Ta retrieval in Fig. 2a shows satellite retrieval underestimation of Ta in several regions such as the Mediterranean Sea, the east coast of Australia, the Caribbean Sea, and the northeastern Atlantic Ocean. This pattern of bias is also true for Ta retrievals of Liu (1988) , Jourdan and Gautier (1995) , and Konda et al. (1996) (not shown). Figure 2b shows that the AMSST Ta retrieval gives generally less bias in

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