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Etor E. Lucio-Eceiza, J. Fidel González-Rouco, Elena García-Bustamante, Jorge Navarro, Cristina Rojas-Labanda, and Hugo Beltrami

; Correia et al. 2017 ). Surface wind is largely shaped by the general circulation of the atmosphere in interaction with the regional/local orographic and thermodynamic characteristics of the surroundings (e.g., Atkinson 1981 ; Bianco et al. 2006 ). Over northeastern North America, this circulation system is primarily related to pressure gradients that, on average, are characterized by semipermanent high pressure cells over the subtropics and poles, interspaced by the Icelandic and Aleutian lows

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Silvia Innocenti, Alain Mailhot, Anne Frigon, Alex J. Cannon, and Martin Leduc

/or multimember approaches ( Kendon et al. 2017 ; Coppola et al. 2019 ). As part of the Climate Change and Hydrological Extremes (ClimEx) project, a large ensemble of high-resolution (0.11° latitude–longitude) simulations has been produced for two spatial domains: one covering the northeastern part of North America ( Fig. 1a ) and one covering most of Europe (see Leduc et al. 2019 ; Fig. 2 ). This 50-member ensemble has been simulated over the period 1950–2100 using the fifth-generation Canadian Regional

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Justin Sheffield, Ben Livneh, and Eric F. Wood

; Lohmann et al. 2004 ; Guo et al. 2006 ). The North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) ( Mesinger et al. 2006 ) is a relatively recent reanalysis product of modeled atmospheric and land variables for the North American continent and adjacent oceans over the past 30 yr. It is an improvement on global reanalyses because of its higher resolution (32 km, compared to 50–200 km of global reanalyses), state-of-the-art LSM, and most importantly, the assimilation of observed precipitation. The NARR is

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G. T. Diro and L. Sushama

and Schär 2009 ), which may lead to frequent extreme events. Studying extreme temperature events is also important, as they have considerable impacts, such as an increased risk of heat-related mortality ( Hajat et al. 2007 ; Zanobetti and Schwartz 2008 ). The underlying mechanisms for the increase in extreme temperature characteristics in future climate will vary with region. Meehl and Tebaldi (2004) , for instance, associated the future changes in extreme temperature events over North America

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Paul C. Loikith and Anthony J. Broccoli

events ( Vavrus et al. 2006 ; Kodra et al. 2011 ). Loikith and Broccoli (2012 , hereinafter LB12) systematically identified and described the primary atmospheric circulation patterns associated with extreme temperature days over North America during the twentieth century. The diagnostic metrics devised in LB12 allow for systematic comparison between observations and model-simulated circulation data. This work follows the framework of LB12 and compares model simulations of atmospheric

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Omar Bellprat, Sven Kotlarski, Daniel Lüthi, Ramón De Elía, Anne Frigon, René Laprise, and Christoph Schär

particular over Europe (PRUDENCE and ENSEMBLES; Christensen and Christensen 2007 ; van der Linden and Mitchell 2009 ), South America [Climate Change Assessment and Impact Studies (CLARIS; Menéndez et al. 2010 )], the United States [Project to Intercompare Regional Climate Simulations (PIRCS; Takle et al. 1999 )], North America (NARCCAP; Mearns et al. 2012 ), the Arctic [Arctic Regional Climate Model Intercomparison (ARCMIP; Curry and Lynch 2002 )], Asia [Regional Climate Model Intercomparison

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Jamie D. Hoover, Nolan Doesken, Kelly Elder, Melinda Laituri, and Glen E. Liston

bonding, and an overall decrease in mobility. The rate of metamorphism depends primarily on temperature. Thus, a higher threshold is required to transport snow once bonding has occurred. Over the past 30–50 years, declining wind speeds have been observed at in situ stations in North America, Europe, Australia, Canada, Switzerland, and China ( Klink 1999 ; Pirazzoli and Tomasin 2003 ; Tuller 2004 ; Roderick et al. 2007 ; McVicar et al. 2008 , 2010 ; Pryor et al. 2009 ; Jiang et al. 2010

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Jonathan Gula and W. Richard Peltier

downscaled future climate projections ( Liang et al. 2008 ). The RCM is not intended to modify the large-scale circulation of the GCM but is intended rather to add regional detail in response to regional-scale forcing as it interacts with the larger-scale atmospheric circulation and to reduce biases through a more realistic physics representation ( Liang et al. 2006 ). To investigate the regional climate changes to be expected over the Great Lakes Basin of North America during the next century, we have

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Tracy Ewen, Andrea Grant, and Stefan Brönnimann

America during the early twentieth century, for example, the Dust Bowl droughts in the 1930s. The processes involved in this drought, which affected the southern United States and the Great Plains regions, cannot be fully understood with available surface data. Data from higher levels in the atmosphere are required in order to understand the dynamical processes that govern large-scale circulation and the corresponding effects on surface climate over North America. In this paper, we present a monthly

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Yali Luo, Renhe Zhang, Weimiao Qian, Zhengzhao Luo, and Xin Hu

? How do internal vertical structures of deep convection and the horizontal span of convective systems differ among the three subregions? Then, for a more comprehensive understanding of deep convection in the Tibetan Plateau–Asian monsoon region, we take advantage of the global coverage of the CloudSat /CALIPSO observations and analyze deep convection properties in four other regions—that is, East Asia (EA), the tropical northwestern Pacific (NWP), and western and eastern North America (WNA, ENA

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