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Xin Qu and Alex Hall

1. Introduction Using an energy balance climate model, Budyko (1969) and Sellers (1969) hypothesized that if incoming solar energy and the transparency of the atmosphere to terrestrial radiation are prescribed, the earth’s surface temperature is largely controlled by planetary albedo. The connection of planetary albedo to the thermal state of the surface motivated the climate community to measure this quantity. Numerous estimates have led to a consensus that on a global-mean, annual

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Aaron Donohoe and David S. Battisti

1. Introduction The ratio of reflected to incident shortwave radiation at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), the earth’s planetary albedo, is a function of climate state and exerts a profound influence on the earth’s climate. As a reference point, Budyko (1969) postulated that a change in global average planetary albedo of less than 0.02 units could cause global glaciation of the climate system. The radiative forcing associated with a doubling of carbon dioxide above the preindustrial

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C. O. Hines

suggested here that planetary waves, which maybe subjected to variable reflection in the upper atmosphere and so may induce variable interference patterns in the lower atmosphere, constitute a potential candidate. Numerous attempts have been made to establishthat a correlation exists between some parameter describing the conventional meteorological domain ofthe atmosphere (as distinct from the ionosphericdomain) and some parameter representative of disturbed conditions on the sun. Most such

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James E. Hansen

eter measurements. Mon. Wea. Rev., 96, 387-396.Circular Polarization of Sunlight Reflected by Clouds JAm~s E. HANSENGoddard Institute for Spac* Studies, New York, N. Y.1 October 1971 and 18 October 1971ABSTRACT Measurements of circular polarization of visible light from planets have recently been reported. It ispointed out here that the values measured for the circular polarization for Jupiter and Venus are of themagnitude expected for sunlight reflected by a cloudy planetary atmosphere

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V. S. Avduevsky, M. Ya Marov, B. E. Moshkin, and A. P. Ekonomov

SEr'rE.'d~ER1973 NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE 1215Venera 8: Measurements of Solar Illumination Through the Atmosphere of Venus iV. S. AVDUF. VSKY, M. YA. MAROV, B. E. MOSIIKIN AND A. P. EKO~O~tOVAcademy of Sciences, Moscow, ['SSR28 May 1973 and I0 July 1973ABSTRACT MeasureInents of the flux of downward solar radiation through the atmosphere of Venus and at the planetary surface are reported. These

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Robert D. Cess and Inna L. Vulis

Desert regions are employed in somewhat of a tutorial mode for the purpose of addressing several issuesassociated with understanding the dependence of planetary (top-of-the-atmosphere) albedo upon solar zenithangle, i.e., the directional planetary albedo. It is emphasized that in evaluating this quantity from satellite data,and with reference to land surfaces, spurious results may be obtained if geographical variations of the planetaryalbedo are not isolated from the aibedo's solar zenith angle

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Charles A. Barth

containing a mixture of atomic hydrogen and molecular hydrogen is preferred over theatomic hydrogen-deuterium model or the atomic hydrogen two-temperature model. The source of molecularhydrogen in the upper atmosphere may be chemical reactions either in the hot, dense lower atmosphere or inthe upper atmosphere. The photodissociation of molecular hydrogen produces atoms with excess kineticenergy which either escape from the planetary gravitational field or react with the molecules in the loweratmosphere

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Robert E. Dickinson

provides a partial interpretation of the maintenance of atmospheric zonal flows, such as that of the wintertime stratosphere, by planetary waves propagating from someother region of the atmosphere.1. Introduction Horizontal eddy transports of momentum and heatprovide the basis for much of our present interpretationof the climatology of large-scale dynamical processes inthe earth's atmosphere. The eddy momentum transports are generally poleward and act to augment th~existing currents (Start, 1948

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M. Shabbar

APRxL 1971 M. S H A B B A R 345Side-Band Resonance Mechanism in the Atmosphere Supporting Rossby Waves1V~. SHABBAR Canadian Meteorological Service, Toronto, Ontario(Manuscript received 22 June 1970, in revised form 10 November 1970) We study the long-time behavior of the planetary motions of the atmosphere by adopting a formalasymptotic approach based on different time

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Guillermo Scheffler and Manuel Pulido

associated with a poor representation of wave drag in the stratosphere, though it is not clear whether the reason for the bias is a bad representation of gravity wave drag given by the parameterizations of unresolved gravity waves in the model or an incorrect or insufficient amount of planetary wave drag, which is resolved directly in the model. McLandress et al. (2012) used wind increments from the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model Data Assimilation System (CMAM-DAS) to infer the systematic bias in the

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