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Cristián Chadwick, Jorge Gironás, Sebastián Vicuña, and Francisco Meza

; King et al. 2015 ; King et al. 2016 ; Lopez et al. 2018 ), sea level ( Carson et al. 2016 ; Lyu et al. 2014 ), current system upwelling ( Brady et al. 2017 ), and different ocean properties ( Keller et al. 2014 ; Henson et al. 2017 ). Finding ToE is relevant as it serves as a marker of human-induced climate change. Recent studies also mention its importance for decision-making, especially when implementing adaptation and mitigation plans ( Nguyen et al. 2018 ; Zhou et al. 2018 ). ToE is most

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Robert Drost, Mark Casteel, Julie Libarkin, Stephen Thomas, and Matt Meister

. National Weather Service. Accessed December 2013. [Available online at http://www.nws.noaa.gov/mission.php .] Perry, R. W. , and Lindell M. , 1991 : The effects of ethnicity on evacuation decision-making . Int. J. Mass Emerg. Disasters , 9 , 47 – 68 . Perry, R. W. , Lindell M. , and Greene M. R. , 1981 : Evacuation Planning in Emergency Management. Lexington Books, 199 pp . Quarantelli, E. L. , 1980 : Evacuation behavior and problems: Findings and implications from the research

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Faisal Hossain, Nicholas Elmer, Margaret Srinivasan, and Alice Andral

2020 SWOT Virtual Early Adopter Hackathon What : A virtual hackathon was organized using Zoom web conferencing for early adopters of the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission that is planned for launch in 2022. Thirty-eight participants representing early adopters and support staff collaborated intensively to resolve bottlenecks and software hurdles associated with the generation and use of simulated SWOT data over 4 days. When : 26 May–1 June 2020 Where : Virtual (organized by the

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Gabriel García-Medina, H. Tuba Özkan-Haller, Peter Ruggiero, and Jeffrey Oskamp

Abstract

An operational inner-shelf wave forecasting system was implemented for the Oregon and southwest Washington coast in the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW). High-resolution wave forecasts are useful for navigational planning, identifying wave energy resources, providing information for site-specific coastal flood models, and having an informed recreational beach user group, among other things. This forecasting model is run once a day at 1200 UTC producing 84-h forecasts. A series of nested grids with increasing resolution shoreward are implemented to achieve a 30-arc-second resolution at the shelf level. This resolution is significantly higher than what the current operational models produce, thus improving the ability to quantify the alongshore variations of wave conditions on the PNW coast. Normalized root-mean-squared errors in significant wave height and mean wave period range from 0.13 to 0.24 and from 0.13 to 0.26, respectively. Visualization of the forecasts is made available online and is presently being used by recreational beach users and the scientific community. A series of simulations, taking advantage of having a validated shelf-scale numerical wave model, suggests that neither dissipation due to bottom friction nor wind generation is important in the region at this scale for wave forecasting and hindcasting when considering bulk parameters as opposed to the processes of refraction and shoaling. The Astoria and McArthur Canyons; the Stonewall, Perpetua, and Heceta Banks; and Cape Blanco are significant bathymetric features that are shown to be capable of producing alongshore variability of wave heights on the shelf.

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Worth D. Nowlin Jr.
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Joshua Z. Holland and Scott L. Williams
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Raymond L. Nace
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Stanley A. Changnon Jr.

A paradox has developed involving on one hand sizeable reductions during the last two years in federal support of weather modification, as opposed to major scientific-technical advances in the field plus strong recommendations for increased federal support from the scientific community. The major recent advances include the capability to operationally dissipate cold fogs, to enhance snow from orographic clouds, and to increase rain from tropical clouds, plus the discovery of sizeable urban-related increases in rainfall. Other advances include special weather radars, aircraft with new cloud sensors and the capability to penetrate thunderstorms, new seeding materials and delivery systems, and new techniques for evaluation of projects. These have been coupled with the spread of weather modification around the world and with the initiation of major seeding projects in Colorado (NHRE, HIPLEX, and San Juan Project), Florida, South Dakota, and Illinois-Missouri (METROMEX). Several groups (NACOA, NAS, ICAS, NWC, AMS) all made a series of positive recommendations for advancing the field through more federal support and reorganization. Yet, beginning in FY74, federal support for weather modification dropped 21% when other R&D increased 11%. Many possible causes for the paradox appear, including fear of weather changes, lack of scientific commitment, and a series of public, scientific, political, and military controversies. The three basic issues are that weather modification is still an immature technology; the socio-economic impacts are ill defined; and its management has been uncertain. Proper resolution of the paradox is more apt to occur either because of a dramatic scientific breakthrough or from growing concerns about weather and climate-related environmental changes.

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