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Shuguang Liu, Ben Bond-Lamberty, Lena R. Boysen, James D. Ford, Andrew Fox, Kevin Gallo, Jerry Hatfield, Geoffrey M. Henebry, Thomas G. Huntington, Zhihua Liu, Thomas R. Loveland, Richard J. Norby, Terry Sohl, Allison L. Steiner, Wenping Yuan, Zhao Zhang, and Shuqing Zhao

, precipitation, and increasing atmospheric water vapor content ( Collins et al. 2013 ). Climate change–induced alteration of the water cycle will likely have profound effects on land cover and land use ( Hewitson et al. 2014 ; Settele et al. 2015 ), such as agricultural practices and planning and plant species redistribution, and vice versa. The interactions among climate, the water cycle, ecosystems, and LCLUC are complex, and understanding them is a grand challenge. Specifically, we need to understand how

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Alan W. Black and Walker S. Ashley

that reduce vulnerability to these hazards include having a plan in place to address them, having a high school or college education attainment level, having a basement, and hearing sirens ( Legates and Biddle 1999 ; Balluz et al. 2000 ; Brown et al. 2002 ). Other factors can greatly increase vulnerability to these storms, such as housing type, the time of day, day of week, time of year, and/or age. In terms of housing type, the most vulnerable populations are those living in mobile homes

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Cristián Chadwick, Jorge Gironás, Sebastián Vicuña, and Francisco Meza

; King et al. 2015 ; King et al. 2016 ; Lopez et al. 2018 ), sea level ( Carson et al. 2016 ; Lyu et al. 2014 ), current system upwelling ( Brady et al. 2017 ), and different ocean properties ( Keller et al. 2014 ; Henson et al. 2017 ). Finding ToE is relevant as it serves as a marker of human-induced climate change. Recent studies also mention its importance for decision-making, especially when implementing adaptation and mitigation plans ( Nguyen et al. 2018 ; Zhou et al. 2018 ). ToE is most

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Robert Drost, Mark Casteel, Julie Libarkin, Stephen Thomas, and Matt Meister

. National Weather Service. Accessed December 2013. [Available online at http://www.nws.noaa.gov/mission.php .] Perry, R. W. , and Lindell M. , 1991 : The effects of ethnicity on evacuation decision-making . Int. J. Mass Emerg. Disasters , 9 , 47 – 68 . Perry, R. W. , Lindell M. , and Greene M. R. , 1981 : Evacuation Planning in Emergency Management. Lexington Books, 199 pp . Quarantelli, E. L. , 1980 : Evacuation behavior and problems: Findings and implications from the research

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Faisal Hossain, Nicholas Elmer, Margaret Srinivasan, and Alice Andral

2020 SWOT Virtual Early Adopter Hackathon What : A virtual hackathon was organized using Zoom web conferencing for early adopters of the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission that is planned for launch in 2022. Thirty-eight participants representing early adopters and support staff collaborated intensively to resolve bottlenecks and software hurdles associated with the generation and use of simulated SWOT data over 4 days. When : 26 May–1 June 2020 Where : Virtual (organized by the

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Gabriel García-Medina, H. Tuba Özkan-Haller, Peter Ruggiero, and Jeffrey Oskamp

Abstract

An operational inner-shelf wave forecasting system was implemented for the Oregon and southwest Washington coast in the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW). High-resolution wave forecasts are useful for navigational planning, identifying wave energy resources, providing information for site-specific coastal flood models, and having an informed recreational beach user group, among other things. This forecasting model is run once a day at 1200 UTC producing 84-h forecasts. A series of nested grids with increasing resolution shoreward are implemented to achieve a 30-arc-second resolution at the shelf level. This resolution is significantly higher than what the current operational models produce, thus improving the ability to quantify the alongshore variations of wave conditions on the PNW coast. Normalized root-mean-squared errors in significant wave height and mean wave period range from 0.13 to 0.24 and from 0.13 to 0.26, respectively. Visualization of the forecasts is made available online and is presently being used by recreational beach users and the scientific community. A series of simulations, taking advantage of having a validated shelf-scale numerical wave model, suggests that neither dissipation due to bottom friction nor wind generation is important in the region at this scale for wave forecasting and hindcasting when considering bulk parameters as opposed to the processes of refraction and shoaling. The Astoria and McArthur Canyons; the Stonewall, Perpetua, and Heceta Banks; and Cape Blanco are significant bathymetric features that are shown to be capable of producing alongshore variability of wave heights on the shelf.

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Worth D. Nowlin Jr.
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Raymond L. Nace
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