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Benjamin H. Cole, Ping Yang, Bryan A. Baum, Jerome Riedi, Laurent C.-Labonnote, Francois Thieuleux, and Steven Platnick

remainder of this paper contains the following sections. Section 2 outlines the data used and the radiative transfer (RT) model employed to perform the simulations for the polarized reflectance analysis, section 3 presents the results of the comparison of model simulations of polarized reflectance and the spherical albedo difference with PARASOL satellite measurements, and section 4 summarizes the work. 2. Data and models a. The PARASOL satellite PARASOL is a French microsatellite launched in

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Peter Bauer, A. Khain, A. Pokrovsky, R. Meneghini, C. Kummerow, F. Marzano, and J. P. V. Poiares Baptista

modeling of particle composition and dielectric permittivity as a function of the composition of the particle and also describes the radiative transfer code employed. In section 4 radar reflectivity and multifrequency brightness temperature simulations are shown and investigated for various model and background configurations once the original cloud model size distributions are specified. For the assessment of the effect of parameterized size distributions, analogous radiative transfer calculations

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E. Péquignot, A. Chédin, and N. A. Scott

distributions and time variations of the land surface emissivity ( Ogawa et al. 2003 ). It has also been shown that accounting properly for the surface emissivity in the solution of the radiative transfer equation inverse problem substantially improves the meteorological profiles (temperature, moisture) and cloud ( Plokhenko and Menzel 2000 ) characteristics retrieved from infrared vertical sounders. Also, over continental surfaces, knowledge of the infrared emissivity spectrum allows one to correct

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Alexander V. Babanin and AndréJ. van der Westhuysen

the radiative transfer equation employed by all spectral wave models to predict wave spectrum F: where the two other sources of wind input S in and resonant nonlinear four-wave interactions S nl are also explicitly mentioned. All the source terms, as well as the spectrum itself, are functions of wavenumber k, frequency ω , time t , and spatial coordinate x. Since the major, if not dominant part of S ds is attributed to energy losses due to wave breaking, and the breaking has been

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Graeme L. Stephens

15 JUNE 1988GRAEME L. STEPHENS1837Radiative Transfer through Arbitrarily Shaped Optical Media. Part II: Group Theory and Simple Closures GRAEME L. STEPHENSColorado State University, Department of Atmospheric Science, Ft. Collins, Colorado(Manuscript received 4 August 1987, in final form 20 January 1988)ABSTRACT This paper presents a formulation of the radiative transfer equation which allows for the distinction betweenvarious groups of spatial scales of variation that

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C. G. Schmitt and A. J. Heymsfield

-tracing calculations. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. , 45 , 973 – 981 . Takano , Y. , and K. N. Liou , 1995 : Radiative transfer in cirrus clouds. Part III: Light scattering by irregular ice particles. J. Atmos. Sci. , 52 , 818 – 837 . Walden , V. P. , S. G. Warren , and E. Tuttle , 2003 : Atmospheric ice crystals over the Antarctic Plateau in winter. J. Appl. Meteor. , 42 , 1391 – 1405 . Weickmann , H. , 1948 : The Ice Phase in the Atmosphere . (in German). Library Translation 273

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Dargan M. W. Frierson, Isaac M. Held, and Pablo Zurita-Gotor

rates as in the Newtonian cooling scheme commonly used in idealized models. We choose gray radiative transfer with specified longwave absorber distribution as the simplest alternative. Therefore, while water vapor is a prognostic variable in this model, changes in it do not affect the radiative transfer. We regard this as a key simplification; it allows us to study some of the dynamical consequences of increasing or decreasing the water vapor content in isolation from any radiative effects. There

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Kuo-Nan Liou, Qiang Fu, and Thomas P. Ackerman

1940 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VOL. 4$,NO. 13.A Simple Formulation of the Delta-Four-Stream Approximation for Radiative Transfer Parameterizations KuO-NAN LIOU AND QIANG FUDepartment of Meteorology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah THOMAS P. ACK.ERMANSpace Science Division, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California(Manuscript received 28 September 1987

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B. Petrenko, A. Ignatov, Y. Kihai, and A. Heidinger

possible. Achieving this goal requires closer consideration of cloud effects on the specific products (e.g., Cayula and Cornillon 1996 ; Martins et al. 2002 ; Pellegrini et al. 2006 ), in our case SST and CSR. For this reason the emphasis in ACSM has been made on using simulations with clear-sky TIR radiative transfer model (RTM) and retrieved SST rather than on exploiting radiative properties of clouds. Another difference between CLAVRx and ACSPO is that ACSPO less relies on using reflectance

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Eui-Seok Chung, Brian J. Soden, and Viju O. John

difference [i.e., 183.31 ± 7 GHz (190.31 GHz for MHS) − 183.31 ± 1 GHz < 0] can be indicative of contamination by large ice particles or rain drops. Radiative transfer simulations show that under clear-sky conditions, the computed 183.31 ± 1 channel brightness temperature has a minimum value for each viewing angle. Because of the limb darkening effect, the brightness temperature decreases as the microwave radiometers scan away from the nadir. Since this minimum brightness temperature, which is a function

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