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Heiko Paeth, Kai Born, Robin Girmes, Ralf Podzun, and Daniela Jacob

mitigation policy and to quantify the relative contribution of land degradation. Note that we are not able to assess the uncertainty arising from different climate models in Africa, simply because computing resources are still not yet available to realize long-term multimodel ensembles with high-resolution regional climate models. REMO participated in the Prediction of Regional Scenarios and Uncertainties for Defining European Climate Change Risks and Effects (PRUDENCE), an intercomparison project of

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Zhao Yang, Francina Dominguez, Xubin Zeng, Huancui Hu, Hoshin Gupta, and Ben Yang

1. Introduction a. Background Humans are modifying climate from the regional to the global scale by changing the composition of the atmosphere and by land-use/land-cover changes (LULCC). Here, we focus on the effects of LULCC on climate, with specific attention to the impacts of agricultural irrigation. Water consumption by irrigation is known to account for about 2% of annual precipitation over land ( Sacks et al. 2008 ), which, although relatively small when averaged over land, is large when

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Barry H. Lynn, Richard Healy, and Leonard M. Druyan

and associated precipitation that lead to more extreme regional events. Alternatively, GCMs have been used as the “global driver” for regional-scale mesoscale models to simulate regional climate (e.g., Bates et al. 1993 ; Giorgi et al. 1993 ; Walsh and McGregor 1995 ; Nobre et al. 2001 ; Leung et al. 2003a , b ), and to project regional climate change decades into the future ( Bell et al. 2004 ; Han and Roads 2004 ; Leung et al. 2004 ; Liang et al. 2004 ). A widely used mesoscale model

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Tilla Roy, Laurent Bopp, Marion Gehlen, Birgit Schneider, Patricia Cadule, Thomas L. Frölicher, Joachim Segschneider, Jerry Tjiputra, Christoph Heinze, and Fortunat Joos

( Meyer et al. 1999 ; Joos et al. 2001 ; Dufresne et al. 2002 ; Jones et al. 2003 ; Cox et al. 2004 ; Matthews et al. 2005 ; Matthews et al. 2007 ). Recently, after observation-based studies revealed that regional ocean carbon sinks can undergo strong variations within several years ( Schuster and Watson 2007 ; Metzl 2009 ; Schuster et al. 2009 ; Watson et al. 2009 ), there has been a renewed interest in the oceanic feedbacks. Although there has been a relatively long history of investigating

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Summer Rupper and Gerard Roe

of the reanalysis (2.5° × 2.5°), and thus rain at the surface elevation of a reanalysis grid point would likely not be rain at the ELA of a glacier within that grid point. We assume that all precipitation falling at the ELA is snow. A fully consistent accounting of the difference between rain and snow at the ELA would also involve calculating the refreeze of rain within the snowpack and the resulting heat input. We neglect these effects given our focus on regional scales and first-order questions

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Ruth Cerezo-Mota, Myles Allen, and Richard Jones

the Prediction of Regional scenarios and Uncertainties for Defining European Climate change risks and Effects (PRUDENCE) and Ensemble-Based Predictions of Climate Change and their Impacts (ENSEMBLES) for Europe and the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) for North America. To underpin these studies there is a clear requirement for detailed studies of the climate processes involved and their representation in the models. Motivated by the current climate

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Grigory Nikulin, Colin Jones, Filippo Giorgi, Ghassem Asrar, Matthias Büchner, Ruth Cerezo-Mota, Ole Bøssing Christensen, Michel Déqué, Jesus Fernandez, Andreas Hänsler, Erik van Meijgaard, Patrick Samuelsson, Mouhamadou Bamba Sylla, and Laxmi Sushama

future climate projections at regional scales. Over the past decade, several international projects have applied regional climate models (RCMs) to generate high-resolution, multimodel ensembles of future climate projections by downscaling output from AOGCMs. These include the Prediction of Regional Scenarios and Uncertainities for Defining European Climate Change Risks and Effects (PRUDENCE) ( Christensen et al. 2007 ) and ENSEMBLE-Based Predictions of Climate Changes and their Impacts (ENSEMBLES

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Amin K. Dezfuli, Benjamin F. Zaitchik, Hamada S. Badr, Jason Evans, and Christa D. Peters-Lidard

water allocation between the four countries that share the basin. In recent years there have been a number of attempts to reach bilateral protocols, but successful basinwide cooperation does not exist. The increase in water demand and frequency of severe droughts in recent decades ( Hoerling et al. 2012 ) can acerbate regional conflicts and intensify the long-standing political instability in the region. For example, the initiation of the recent ongoing civil war in Syria, which has greatly affected

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Nicholas A. Bond and Karin A. Bumbaco

the fluctuations in summer pET relate to regional atmospheric circulation patterns. Some previous research has been carried out on the relationships between these patterns and heat waves in the Pacific Northwest ( Bumbaco et al. 2013 ; Lau and Nath 2012 ), and an objective of the present study is to document the circulation patterns with respect to variations in pET. Much of the work on the climate variability of the Pacific Northwest has focused on the winter season; the present effort

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Er Lu, Eugene S. Takle, and Jha Manoj

. Assessments of local and regional effects of changes of the hydrological cycle with climate identify the need for improved capabilities for modeling the hydrological cycle and its individual components at the subwatershed level. The publication of the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC; Solomon et al. 2007 ) has brought increased attention to climate change at regional scales. Although extensive simulations of climate change by regional climate models

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