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William R. Hobbs, Christopher Roach, Tilla Roy, Jean-Baptiste Sallée, and Nathaniel Bindoff

southward toward the Antarctic continental shelf, where it is converted through sea ice formation into Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW), the coldest, densest water mass on the planet ( Orsi et al. 1999 ; Pellichero et al. 2018 ). The complexity of this overturning system is reflected in observed changes in temperature and salinity in the Southern Ocean. Previous studies have identified a very clear, detectable global ocean warming in response to anthropogenic greenhouse gases ( Bilbao et al. 2019

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Yuhong Zhang, Yan Du, W. N. D. S Jayarathna, Qiwei Sun, Ying Zhang, Fengchao Yao, and Ming Feng

1. Introduction Three typical high-salinity water masses have been reported in the Arabian Sea: the Arabian Sea high-salinity water (ASHSW), the Persian Gulf water (PGW), and the Red Sea water ( Morrison 1997 ; Rochford 1964 ; Stramma et al. 2002 ). The ASHSW forms in the northern part of the Arabian Sea and spreads southward as a salinity maximum within the upper 150 m ( Kumar and Prasad 1996 , 1999 ; Qasim 1982 ; Rochford 1964 ). The PGW forms in the Persian Gulf and exits to the Gulf of

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J. R. Toggweiler and B. Samuels

1950 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUME25Effect of Sea Ice on the Salinity of Antarctic Bottom Waters J. R. TOGGWEILER AND B. SAMUELSGeophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory/NO/A, Princeton, New Jersey(Manuscript received 27 December 1993, in final form 6 December 1994)ABSTRACt Brine rejection during the formation of An~crctic sea ice is known to enhance the salinity of dense

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Sirpa Häkkinen

1. Background In the present climate regime the renewal of the deep water masses in the northern North Atlantic depends on a conversion of light water to bottom water mainly through heat loss while the freshwater flux opposes the process. The “recent” occurrence of the Great Salinity Anomaly (GSA), in the end of the 1960s, early 1970s in the northern North Atlantic ( Dickson et al. 1988 ) resulted in very fresh surface conditions occupying the subpolar gyre for several years. Occurrence of GSA

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Stephen G. Monismith, Wim Kimmerer, Jon R. Burau, and Mark T. Stacey

1. Introduction As a part of attempts to manage and restore the San Francisco Estuary, environmental standards have been based on the positioning of the salt field in northern San Francisco Bay and the adjoining delta of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers (see Fig. 1 ). Following a suggestion by Williams and Hollibaugh (1989) , the measure of salinity intrusion proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA; Schubel et al. 1992 ), and eventually implemented, was X 2 —the distance

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Esther Portela, Emilio Beier, Eric D. Barton, Rubén Castro, Victor Godínez, Emilio Palacios-Hernández, Paul C. Fiedler, Laura Sánchez-Velasco, and Armando Trasviña

this water mass that reaches the TPCM with specific biogeochemical features as the minimum content of oxygen. Instead, the StUW is a more general term that includes the StSsW but refers to the waters formed by subduction in the vicinity of the subtropical gyres in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. According to McDougall and Barker (2011) , absolute salinity ( S A ) and conservative temperature (Θ) corresponding to the Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater 2010 (TEOS-10), must be used in scientific

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R. D. Muench, H. J. S. Fernando, and G. R. Stegen

FEBRUARY 1990 R.D. MUENCH, H. J. S. FERNANDO AND G. R. STEGEN 295Temperature and Salinity Staircases in the Northwestern Weddell Sea R. D. MUENCHScience Applications International Corporation, Bellevue, Washington H. J. S. FERNANDODept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona G. R. STEGENScience Applications International Corporation

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Francisco Machín, Josep L. Pelegrí, E. Fraile-Nuez, P. Vélez-Belchí, F. López-Laatzen, and A. Hernández-Guerra

1. Introduction Two water masses interleave in the Canary Basin at intermediate levels: northward-flowing Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) and southward-flowing Mediterranean Water (MW). AAIW may be found in the 600–1100-m depth range, whereas MW reaches deeper, roughly from 900- to 1500-m depth ( van Aken 2000 ; Machín and Pelegrí 2009 ). AAIW and MW are characterized by minimum ( S < 35.3) and maximum ( S > 35.5) salinity values, respectively ( Arhan et al. 1994 ; Machín et al. 2006

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Masami Nonaka and Kensuke Takeuchi

1. Introduction In a meridional salinity section in the central Pacific ( Fig. 1a ), a high salinity tongue extends from the subtropics to the Tropics on either side of the equator. Figure 2a depicts the tropical salinity distribution on the σ θ = 24.5 isopycnal surface, a density surface around which high salinity cores are located on both hemispheres. In the Southern Hemisphere, a high salinity tongue (>35.0 psu) extends northwestward all the way to the western boundary and the equator

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Hiroshi Uchida, Takeshi Kawano, and Masao Fukasawa

the moored CTDs referenced to velocity measurements by moored current meters also deployed during the WIFE. Since changes in temperature and salinity of the abyssal water are small, moored CTD data must be accurately calibrated to shipboard CTD data. During WIFE, we used 50 CTDs of a type (model SBE-37 SM; Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc., Bellevue, Washington) widely used around the world [e.g., in the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean/Triangle TransOcean Buoy Network (TAO/TRITON) in the tropical Pacific

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