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Glen E. Liston

JULY 1995 LISTON 1705Local Advection of Momentum, Heat, and I~Ioisture during the Melt of Patchy Snow Covers GLEN E. LISTONDepartment of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado(Manuscript received 7 November 1994, in final form 30 January 1995)ABSTRACT A numerical atmospheric boundary layer model, based on higher-order turbulence

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Peter Romanov, Garik Gutman, and Ivan Csiszar

Introduction Snow cover is among the most important of the earth’s surface characteristics that influence surface radiation, energy, and hydrologic budgets. It is one of the key factors to consider in the atmospheric circulation, runoff modeling, numerical weather forecasting, and climate change studies. Because the information on snow cover is needed for various weather and climate applications, the accurate monitoring of this component of the earth’s surface is an important and pressing issue

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Michael A. Alexander, Robert Tomas, Clara Deser, and David M. Lawrence

1. Introduction Terrestrial snow cover (SC) can influence the atmosphere via surface heat and radiative fluxes, as it is a good insulator and has both high albedo and thermal emissivity. For example, changes in snow cover during winter alter the surface fluxes, thereby changing the lower-tropospheric temperature (e.g., Walsh et al. 1982 ; Vavrus 2007 ). In addition to this local effect, snow cover also generates a remote response that differs depending on the dynamical processes involved

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Ralph A. Petersen and James E. Hoke

JUNE 1989 NMC NOTES 253The Effect of Snow Cover on the Regional Analysis and Forecast System (RAFS) Low-Level Forecasts RALPH A. PETERSEN AND JAMES E. HOKE NOAA /NWS/NMC/Development Division, Washington, D.C. 26 April 1989 and 27 April 1989ABSTRACT The response of the Regional Analysis and Forecast System (RAFS) low-level forecast fields

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Marc Stieglitz, Agnès Ducharne, Randy Koster, and Max Suarez

1. Background Northern Hemisphere snow cover varies from 7% to 40% over the annual cycle, making it the most dynamic large-scale land surface feature on the earth ( Hall 1988 ). As such, the large-scale spatial structure of snow cover can have an important impact on atmospheric circulation through its control over the land surface albedo and its impact on the surface energy balance ( Barnett et al. 1989 ; Namias 1985 ). Historical data analysis has suggested that snow cover extent influences

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Timothy W. Hawkins, Andrew W. Ellis, Jon A. Skindlov, and Dallas Reigle

1. Introduction Recently, snow cover has taken a more prominent role in climate assessment and prediction. Snow cover has been shown to influence climatic variables such as temperature through increased albedo ( Robinson and Kukla 1985 ; Walsh et al. 1985 ), increased thermal emissivity ( Wagner 1973 ), decreased thermal conductivity ( Cohen and Rind 1991 ), and by serving as a sink for latent heat ( Cohen and Rind 1991 ). Snow cover influences both surface temperature as well as atmospheric

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Robert R. Dickson

JANUARY 1984NOTES171Eurasian Snow Cover versus Indian Monsoon Rainfall-An Extension of the Hahn-Shukla ResultsROBERT R. DIcKsONClimate Analysis Center. NMC/NWS/NOAA, Washington, DC 202331 August 1983 and 5 October 1983ABSTRACTThe apparent inverse relationship between Eurasian mean winter snow cover extent and the following warmseason Indian monsoon rainfall, described by Hahn and Shukia for the 1967-75 period, is substantiated bythe addition of five subsequent years of data if known

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Kazuyuki Saito, Judah Cohen, and Dara Entekhabi

discussed by DeWeaver and Nigam (2000) , is through the coupling between the zonal-mean flow and waves. Forcing of the interannual pattern of variability associated with the NAO (AO) mode has also been attributed to other factors such as natural and anthropogenic changes in atmospheric chemistry ( Kodera and Yamazaki 1994 ; Shindell et al. 1999 ; etc.). To date however, no firm conclusions have been reached. Recently it has been shown that September, October, and November (SON) Eurasian snow cover and

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Zong-Liang Yang, Robert E. Dickinson, Alan Robock, and K. Ya Vinnikov

GCMs (e.g., Wilson et al. 1987 ; Sellers and Dorman 1987 ; Sellers et al. 1989 ). The variables subject to validation are net radiation, evapotranspiration, and sensible heat fluxes because they are the elements required for coupling with the host GCMs. It has been demonstrated in numerous simulations and observational studies that snow cover plays an important role in modifying regional and possibly remote climate through changes in the surface energy balance (e.g., Yeh et al. 1983 ; Namias

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John E. Walsh, David R. Tucek, and Miriam R. Peterson

1474 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW VOLUM- 110Seasonal Snow Cover and Short-Term Climatic Fluctuations over the United StatesJOHN E. WALSH, DAVID R. TUCEK~ AND MIRIAM R. PETERSON2Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana 61801,(Manuscript received 16 March 1982, in final form 23 June 1982) ABSTRACT lnterannual fluctuations of snow cover in the

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