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E. M. C. Demaria, E. P. Maurer, J. Sheffield, E. Bustos, D. Poblete, S. Vicuña, and F. Meza

where the underlying density of available station observations is low, the station locations are inadequate to represent complex topography, or where the gridded spatial resolution is too large for the region being studied. Central Chile is an especially challenging environment for characterizing climate and hydrology since the terrain exhibits dramatic elevation changes over short distances, and the orographic effects produce high spatial heterogeneity in precipitation. In general, the observation

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Zhijun Huang, Huan Wu, Robert F. Adler, Guy Schumann, Jonathan J. Gourley, Albert Kettner, and Nergui Nanding

protection infrastructures, which could be used to investigate the anthropogenic impacts on floods occurring under global environment changes. The “natural (undefended)” inventory (MFI-Natural) contains reconstructed “historical” flood events under the assumption of no flood protection, i.e., an estimate of events that would have happened under a “natural” system. Some basic statistics from both inventories are then explored and compared. Data and methodology Data Point-based flood records are first

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Timothy J. Osborn, Craig J. Wallace, Jason A. Lowe, and Dan Bernie

complex GCM behavior in terms of its geographical, seasonal, and multivariate response to global anthropogenic forcing ( Osborn et al. 2016 ). The appeal of PS is that climate projections for a wide pool of climate change scenarios, including combinations of GCMs and forcing scenarios not included in the training data, can be quickly generated to represent both GCM and scenario uncertainties. The approach is popular within integrated impact studies that couple socioeconomic and physical environmental

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Samuel S. Bell, Savin S. Chand, Suzana J. Camargo, Kevin J. Tory, Chris Turville, and Harvey Ye

frequency in the Pacific . Nat. Climate Change , 7 , 123 – 127 , . 10.1038/nclimate3181 Colbert , A. J. , B. J. Soden , and B. P. Kirtman , 2015 : The impact of natural and anthropogenic climate change on western North Pacific tropical cyclone tracks . J. Climate , 28 , 1806 – 1823 , . 10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00100.1 Collier , M. A. , and Coauthors , 2011 : The CSIRO-Mk3.6.0 atmosphere–ocean GCM: Participation

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Mustafa Gokmen, Zoltan Vekerdy, Maciek W. Lubczynski, Joris Timmermans, Okke Batelaan, and Wouter Verhoef

abstraction.” The semiarid Konya basin in central Anatolia (Turkey), which is one of the biggest endorheic basins in the world, is a typical example of groundwater resources under strong anthropogenic pressure. Over the last few decades, the basin experienced huge groundwater abstraction for irrigation, which caused a hydraulic head decline of ~1 m yr −1 ( Bayari et al. 2009 ). Establishing the spatial and temporal distribution of hydrological fluxes using remote sensing (RS) methods has been the focus

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Nikolaos Christidis and Peter A. Stott

, however, is not a major caveat, as the short-lived climatic effect of natural forcings on the 142-yr temperature trend used in the calculation of ΔSST is minimal. Other caveats in our approach are linked to the effects of anthropogenic aerosols and slow-varying modes of variability. Although the linear assumption employed here can adequately describe the temperature response to the dominant anthropogenic forcing from greenhouse gas emissions, it may not be the best way to account for the nonmonotonic

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Yan Li, Lijuan Zhu, Xinyi Zhao, Shuangcheng Li, and Yan Yan

local human activity and other land use effects such as vegetation and water, which can mitigate the warming caused by urbanization ( He et al. 2007 ). These results indicate the internal complexity of temperature change that could be affected by multiple natural and anthropogenic factors. An additional uncertainty that may have influenced our results is the frequently mentioned inhomogeneities in climate data, which is an inevitable problem in many parts of world. It is widely accepted that

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Abel T. Woldemichael, Faisal Hossain, and Roger Pielke Sr.

LULC scenarios, to address the important question regarding dams and their impoundments: How sensitive are the hydroclimatology and terrain features of a region in modulating the postdam response of climate feedbacks to EP? Findings of this study allowed a comparison with the findings reported in Woldemichael et al. (2012) for a contrasting hydroclimate and topography. The study first investigated the individual effects of the anthropogenic changes on extreme precipitation for the selected study

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Deming Zhao and Jian Wu

air temperature at 2 m (SAT) that is highly connected to the daily lives and activities of humans, is of great importance. The contribution of land-use changes to the globally averaged SAT trend is unlikely to be more than 10%, but the effect on the regional scale in an area with rapid economic development and intense anthropogenic activities may be greater ( IPCC 2013 ). With the rapid development in China, particularly in the eastern region in the 1980s–2010s, urban surface areas have greatly

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Kirk Zmijewski and Richard Becker

potential repercussion of this modification but proceeded with agricultural expansion anyway ( Waltham and Sholji 2001 ). To better understand what has happened in the watershed as a whole, a few questions must be answered: How much of the water is lost from the watershed through increased evapotranspiration? How much water is stored as groundwater? What are the combined effects of desertification in the areas formerly under the sea and from local climate change? What has the net effect been on water in

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