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James Overland, Jennifer A. Francis, Richard Hall, Edward Hanna, Seong-Joong Kim, and Timo Vihma

changes on midlatitude weather depends on further understanding of 1) the fundamental dynamics of atmospheric circulation features, such as jet stream meanders, blockings, polarity of the Arctic Oscillation (AO), teleconnections, stratosphere–troposphere interactions, wave train propagation, and shifts in planetary wavenumbers; and 2) the atmospheric response to Arctic amplification, that is, disproportionate increases in Arctic temperatures due to a number of predominantly positive feedback processes

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Shangfeng Chen, Renguang Wu, and Yong Liu

, has a close relationship to the wintertime Arctic Oscillation (AO). Gamiz-Fortis et al. (2011) examined the dominant patterns of monthly land surface temperature variability over Europe. Chen et al. (2016) analyzed the interannual variation of summer SAT over northeastern Asia and its associated atmospheric circulation anomalies. The first mode, featuring a homogeneous anomaly, has a close connection with the Eurasian teleconnection pattern. Wu et al. (2010 , 2011 , 2014b ) identified

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Armin Köhl and Nuno Serra

variability of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) induces an Arctic basinwide oscillation with cyclonic and anticyclonic circulation anomalies ( Proshutinsky and Johnson 1997 ; Maslowski et al. 2000 ). The Beaufort Gyre is shown to accumulate freshwater under anticyclonic wind forcing due to Ekman pumping and to release it when the wind is weaker or cyclonic ( Proshutinsky et al. 2002 ). Analyzing the switch from a high North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) state to low NAO, Brauch and Gerdes (2005) found that the

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Xiaodan Chen, Dehai Luo, Steven B. Feldstein, and Sukyoung Lee

decline in winter . J. Climate , 30 , 2639 – 2654 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0548.1 . 10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0548.1 Gong , T. , S. Feldstein , and S. Lee , 2017 : The role of downward infrared radiation in the recent Arctic winter warming trend . J. Climate , 30 , 4937 – 4949 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0180.1 . 10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0180.1 Jung , T. , and M. Hilmer , 2001 : The link between the North Atlantic Oscillation and Arctic sea ice export through Fram Strait

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Justin J. Wettstein and Linda O. Mearns

/or event specific. However, all these effects underscore the importance of climatic extremes, particularly on a daily timescale, in damage to forests. In our region of concern, the northeastern United States and neighboring areas of Canada, local variability of climate is related to large-scale patterns of variability. The dominant mode of large-scale variability in midlatitude Northern Hemisphere temperature variability is the North Atlantic Oscillation–Arctic Oscillation (NAO–AO). A significant

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Jie Song

.1175/1520-0442(2002)015<1969:TNTSC>2.0.CO;2 Ambaum , M. H. P. , B. J. Hoskins , and D. B. Stephenson , 2001 : Arctic Oscillation or North Atlantic Oscillation? J. Climate , 14 , 3495 – 3507 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<3495:AOONAO>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<3495:AOONAO>2.0.CO;2 Baldwin , M. P. , and T. J. Dunkerton , 1999 : Propagation of the Arctic Oscillation from the stratosphere to the troposphere . J. Geophys. Res. , 104 , 30 937 – 30 946 , https://doi.org/10.1029/1999JD

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Mark C. Serreze and Andrew P. Barrett

1. Introduction The past decade has seen an explosion of literature concerning the atmospheric circulation of the north polar region. To a considerable degree, this stems from the recognition that rapid changes observed in the Arctic, including rises in surface air temperature and declining sea ice extent, can be explained in part by attendant shifts in atmospheric patterns. Most of this interest has focused on winter. Studies of links with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and its

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Jorgen S. Frederiksen and Hai Lin

studies have established robust phase relationships between tropical convection on the intraseasonal time scale and the development of Pacific–North America (PNA), Arctic Oscillation (AO), or North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) teleconnection patterns. It seems of interest to examine whether these same phase relationships hold for the theoretical intraseasonal oscillation modes. As well, in observational studies such as LBD2009 wave-activity fluxes have been calculated to characterize the tropical

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Kevin M. Grise, Seok-Woo Son, and John R. Gyakum

. Climate , 4 , 517 – 528 . L'Heureux , M. L. , and R. W. Higgins , 2008 : Boreal winter links between the Madden–Julian oscillation and the Arctic Oscillation . J. Climate , 21 , 3040 – 3050 . Lin , H. , G. Brunet , and J. Derome , 2009 : An observed connection between the North Atlantic Oscillation and the Madden–Julian Oscillation . J. Climate , 22 , 364 – 380 . Lin , H. , G. Brunet , and R. Mo , 2010 : Impact of the Madden–Julian oscillation on wintertime

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Yi Deng, Tae-Won Park, and Ming Cai

1. Introduction The northern annular mode (NAM) is characterized by a deep, nearly barotropic seesaw in the isobaric surface geopotential height field between the Arctic and surrounding midlatitudes (e.g., Thompson and Wallace 1998 , 2000 ). Manifesting itself also as a surface pressure dipole in the northern extratropics [i.e., the Arctic Oscillation (AO)], the NAM is closely tied to the subseasonal fluctuations in the strength of the meridional mass circulation ( Cai and Ren 2007 ). In the

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