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Xingchao Chen, Fuqing Zhang, and Kun Zhao

analysis of the high-wind and low-wind days over 3 years during the mei-yu seasons. In this situation, though different ambient wind speeds are considered, synoptic-scale variability, such as tropical cyclones and midlatitude fronts, are filtered out. The complex multiscale interactions between the monsoonal flow, synoptic systems, and the land–sea breeze and their impacts on the coastal rainfall still need further investigation, especially in a statistical sense. In addition, the moisture sensitivity

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Enda O'Brien and Lee E. Branscome

topography are examined in a class of low-order quasi-geostrophic models on a midlatitude t3plane. In the absence of topography the models are capable of producing qualitatively realistic zonal-meancirculations. The maintenance of the zonally symmetric and asymmetric circulations are examined with differentspectral truncations and topographic configurations. The response to an isolated mountain peak is the mostthoroughly investigated. When the model is run without wave-wave interactions, the time

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Christoph Schär and Nico Kröner

– 55 , doi: 10.1038/nature14956 . 10.1038/nature14956 Boé , J. L. , and L. Terray , 2014 : Land–sea contrast, soil–atmosphere and cloud–temperature interactions: Interplays and roles in future summer European climate change . Climate Dyn. , 42 , 683 – 699 , doi: 10.1007/s00382-013-1868-8 . 10.1007/s00382-013-1868-8 Bony , S. , and Coauthors , 2006 : How well do we understand and evaluate climate change feedback processes? J. Climate , 19 , 3445 – 3482 , doi: 10.1175/JCLI3819.1 . 10

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Duane E. Waliser, K. M. Lau, and Jae-Hoon Kim

the overwhelming amount of observational evidence now available indicating fairly strong interactions in the warm pool regions between the atmosphere and SST at MJO timescales, suggest that the problem should be examined in the context of a more sophisticated atmospheric model. Furthermore, we would like to emphasize that even with the advent of several fully coupled ocean–atmosphere models, the authors are not aware of any published MJO-related studies undertaken with such models. In any case

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J. Egger

1788 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VOLUMe35Dynamics of Blocking Highs J. E~c~Universilat Mgnchen, Meteorologisches In~titut, M~nchen, West Germany (Manuscript received 7 November 1977, in final form 9 June 1978)ABSTRACT It is proposed that the nonlinear interaction of forced waves and slowly moving free waves may lead to thedevelopment of blocking highs under favorable

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James A. Coakley Jr., Robert D. Cess, and Franz B. Yurevich

zenith angle. For example, within a latitudebelt, aerosols over oceans with low surface albedosmight increase the planetary albedo thereby contributing to a local cooling of the earth-atmosphere system while the same aerosols over land with highersurface albedos might decrease the planetary albedo,thereby contributing to a local warming. The increasein surface albedo from equator to pole would havea similar effect on the aerosol forcing but it is partiallycompensated by the increase in aerosol

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Elie Bou-Zeid, Marc B. Parlange, and Charles Meneveau

homogeneous surfaces, but it has been commonly used for land–atmosphere interaction over variable surfaces at regional scales. The applicability of this similarity theory over variable surfaces can be attributed to the strong mixing effects of atmospheric turbulence and to the small extent of vertical length scales vis-à-vis horizontal length scales ( Brutsaert 1998 ). Field experiments found the similarity theory to be accurate in obtaining the regional-scale evaporation, momentum flux, and sensible heat

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S. K. Mishra

mean easterlyjet at 100 hPa is studied over the sphere. The nondivergent barotropic nonlinear global spectral model withrhomboidal truncation at zonal wavenumber 21 is integrated for 120 days for initial random and linear unstableperturbations. The model includes a Rayleigh friction and restoring mechanism for zonal wind to its initialdistribution. Time variations of eddy and zonal kinetic energy, zonal-wave and wave-wave interactions, andeddy and zonal kinetic energy dissipations are examined. The

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K. M. Markowicz, P. J. Flatau, J. Remiszewska, M. Witek, E. A. Reid, J. S. Reid, A. Bucholtz, and B. Holben

relationship with local and large-scale circulation during the UAE 2 experiment. All major circulations are illustrated, but not all of them appear at the same time in nature. The sea breeze brings relatively cleaner air to the region (larger single scattering albedo) in comparison to the land breeze. Conceptually, the atmosphere can be divided into three layers. First, 600 m is polluted and there is a sharp decrease of dust and soot concentrations above this layer. There is an elevated large

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Philippe Peyrillé, Jean-Philippe Lafore, and Jean-Luc Redelsperger

: Coupled land/atmosphere interactions in the West African monsoon. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 28 , 1503 – 1506 . Gu , G. , and R. F. Adler , 2004 : Seasonal evolution and variability associated with the West African monsoon system. J. Climate , 17 , 3364 – 3377 . Hastenrath , S. , 1984 : Interannual variability and annual cycle: Mechanisms of circulation and climate in the tropical Atlantic sector. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 112 , 1097 – 1107 . Hulme , M. , 1994 : Century-scale series of

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