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Wenju Cai

JUNe 1996 NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE 1081NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCEThe Stability of NADWF under Mixed Boundary Conditions with an Improved Diagnosed Freshwater Flux WENJU CAICSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Victoria, Australia31 August 1994 and 12 October 1995ABSTRACT Ocean general circulation models can be run using Haney boundary conditions (BCs) for both temperatureand salinity, or

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Jill Williams, R. G. Barry, and W. M. Washington

VOL. 13, NO. 3 JOURNAl. OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY APRIL 1974Simulation of the Atmospheric Circulation Using the NCAR Global Circulation Model with Ice Age Boundary Conditions JILL WILLIAMS AND R. G. BARRYInstitute of Arctic and A lpine Research and Department of Geography, University of Colorado, Boulder 80302 W. M. WASHINGTON National Center for A lmospheric Research

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Zhigang Xu

1. Introduction In the numerical modeling of the ocean circulation in a finite domain, one of the major challenges is the specification of appropriate conditions at the open water boundaries. In contrast to coastal boundaries where a law of no relative motion between the wall and water can be used for conditions, the conditions on open boundaries are subject to great uncertainty. Usually there are neither sufficient observations (if any) nor physical laws to provide a basis for specifying the

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Dong Jiang, Haibo Chen, Guangzhen Jin, and Xianqing Lv

originate from a distant source like LS but are likely generated near the northwestern SCS. For numerical studies of internal tides, the open boundary conditions (OBCs) must be prescribed to complete the model description at open boundaries. They are very important and have a critical impact on the modeling results. However, a major difficulty faced by regional ocean models is concerned with the treatment of the OBCs ( Lardner et al. 1993 ). In practical ocean modeling, on the other hand, the external

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Karianne Ødemark, Malte Müller, and Ole Einar Tveito

. (2011) studied PMP for a catchment in California and applied a regional-scale high-resolution physical atmospheric model. Other studies have also applied NWP-based methods to estimate PMP, where the approach is based on physical maximization of a historical extreme rainstorm. Ishida et al. (2015a) alters boundary and initial conditions to maximize precipitation over targeted catchments. Chen and Hossain (2018) pointed out that there seems to have emerged a consensus that using a physical

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Eli Tziperman, J. R. Toggweiler, Kirk Bryan, and Yizhak Feliks

VOLUME24 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY IZ~EBRUARY 1994Instability of the Thermohaline Circulation with Respect to Mixed Boundary Conditions: Is It Really a Problem for Realistic Models?*ELI TZIPERMAN,* J. R. TOGGWEILER,* * YIZHAK FELIKS, r AND KIRK BRYAN* * - Environmental Sciences and Energy Research, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel - *Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton

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Greg L. Dial, Jonathan P. Racy, and Richard L. Thompson

1982 ; 1984 ). Through three-dimensional idealized cloud model simulations, Weisman and Klemp showed that a spectrum of storm structures evolved when the thermal buoyancy and vertical shear were varied over an array of environmental conditions. The ratio of buoyancy to vertical wind shear, in the form of a nondimensional bulk Richardson number, was found to be useful in determining basic storm structures. Later observational studies using proximity soundings ( Rasmussen and Blanchard 1998

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K. Yoshimura and M. Kanamitsu

these errors were considered to have only a minor influence on the regional simulation. This may be true for a short-range regional forecast problem for which the initial condition is of greater importance while the lateral boundary condition has less influence. However, the lateral boundary conditions may have a significant influence on the downscaling at climate time scale, because they continuously influence the interior of the regional domain. The external forcings will be even more important

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Eric D. Hunt, Jeffrey B. Basara, and Cynthia R. Morgan

1. Introduction At night longwave emission cools the land surface more quickly than the air above it and the boundary layer can become stable with cold air trapped near the surface ( Hartmann 1994 ). Low-level nocturnal inversions are a common occurrence during these stable atmospheric conditions. Some inversions are induced by synoptic-scale processes ( Groen 1947 ; Fiebrich and Crawford 1998 ), while others are influenced by local conditions, such as terrain and landscape ( Gustavsson et al

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A. J. George Nurser and Stephen M. Griffies

: (65) ∂ S ¯ ‰ ∂ t + ∇ ⋅ ⁡ ( u ¯   S ¯ ‰ ) = − ∇ ⋅ J salinity , where the total diffusive Boussinesq salinity flux is related to the balanced total diffusive salt flux by (66) J salinity = 1000 ρ 0 − 1 J S . 4. Decomposing surface freshwater fluxes into seawater and balanced salt/freshwater fluxes a. Formulating the kinematic surface boundary conditions The vertical position of a point on the ocean free surface is z = η ⁡ ( x , y , t ) . Rewriting this boundary as σ ⁡ ( x , y , z , t ) ≡ z − η = 0

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