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Philip R. A. Brown

a 2D optical array probe. The prime sources of error are theaccuracy of the calibration of the TWC probe and the occurrence of subsaturated air, which invalidates one ofthe main principles of the technique.1. Introduction Clouds are important modulators of the radiativeforcing of the global climate. For example, satellite ohservations of the ea~h's radiation budget (Ramanathanet al. 1989) have shown that the present-day net globalcloud radiative forcing exceeds the increase that wouldbe

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Nathan Magee, Kayla Spector, Yi-Hsuan Lin, Corey Tong, and John Beatty

1. Introduction Cirrus clouds, which form in the upper troposphere, are composed of water ice (typically ice I h ) particles of widely variable shapes and sizes. The remote altitudes, low pressures, and low temperatures of the upper troposphere have limited in situ experimentation on cirrus particles to several types of aircraft and balloon-borne measurements (e.g., Miloshevich et al. 2006 ; Heymsfield et al. 2006 ; Monier et al. 2006 ; McFarquhar et al. 2007 ; Jensen et al. 2009

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Jason A. Otkin, Derek J. Posselt, Erik R. Olson, Hung-Lung Huang, James E. Davies, Jun Li, and Christopher S. Velden

-level assignment that currently limits the value of satellite-derived motion vectors. GIFTS will also greatly enhance our ability to monitor severe weather events, characterize surface and cloud microphysical properties, and track the evolution of trace gases in the atmosphere. The development of GIFTS represents a collaborative effort between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the University of Wisconsin—Madison, Utah State University, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

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E. Gregow, B. Bernstein, I. Wittmeyer, and J. Hirvonen

electricity network. It is important to recognize the large economic impact such decisions can make. For example, the buying and selling of electricity is highly dependent on the forecasts of the potential for wind energy that is expected in the coming hours and days. Beyond the direct and obvious effects of wind speed, the accretion and persistence of ice can have a large impact on turbine efficiency and thus the amount of electricity generated. In some cases, the effects of icing from supercooled clouds

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David A. Rutan, Seiji Kato, David R. Doelling, Fred G. Rose, Le Trang Nguyen, Thomas E. Caldwell, and Norman G. Loeb

1. Introduction The earth’s radiation budget describes the exchange of radiant shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) energy between the earth and space and indicates how much energy is available to drive the hydrological cycle and general circulation ( Trenberth et al. 2009 ). Earth’s response and feedback to radiative forcing directly influences Earth’s radiation budget. At the top of the atmosphere (TOA), satellite instruments such as the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES

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Donald P. Wylie, Barry B. Hinton, and Kellie M. Millett

soundings show a high correlation between surface and1829 m altitude wind directions. Wind speeds also were vertically correlated except at one tropical stationwhere the winds were light. The directional results suggest that cloud motions could be used with instrumentswhich measure only scalar surface wind speed (such as radar altimeters or microwave radiometers) to infervector direction and sea surface stress.1. Introduction Cloud motion winds have been considered as proxydata for surface winds over

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R. Paul Lawson and Alfred R. Rodi

sensor. Final Report AFGL-TR-32-0283, 107 pp. [Available from U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA.]Nicholls, S., E. L. Simmons, N. C. Atkinson, and S. D. Rudman, 1988: A comparison of radiometric and immersion temperature measurements in water clouds. Preprints, Tenth Int. Conf on Cloud Physics, Bad Homburg, ICCP, 322-324.Rodi, A. R., and P. Spyers-Duran, 1972: Analysis of time response of airborne temperature sensors. J. Appl. Meteor., 11,554-556.Rosemount, 1963: Total

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S. Y. Matrosov and R. A. Kropfli

684 JOURNAL OF ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC TECHNOLOGY VOLUME 10Cirrus Cloud Studies with Elliptieally Po~arfi:e~ ~C~ob~n~ ~dar S~gnaRs: A Suggested Approach S. Y. MATROSOVCooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, CIRES University of Colorado/NOd, A, Boulder, Colorado R. A. KROPFLINOAA /ERL /Wave Propagation Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado

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Jing Feng and Yi Huang

in the upper troposphere right across the tropopause, which induces significant uncertainty in lower-stratospheric water vapor retrieval as a result of the smoothing effect (see the discussion in section 3 ); and 2) the temperature variation is not monotonic around the tropopause, which causes the retrieval to lack the thermal contrast necessary for attributing a water vapor anomaly to a particular vertical level. In theory, these limitations can be largely relieved if there is an opaque cloud

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B. Petrenko, A. Ignatov, Y. Kihai, and A. Heidinger

algorithm as used onboard NOAA satellites. ACSM builds upon the Clouds from AVHRR Extended Algorithm (CLAVRx; Heidinger et al. 2002 ; Heidinger 2004 ), which traces back to CLAVR-1 ( Stowe et al. 1999 ), which in turn has grown out of the MUT. While the focus of CLAVRx has been mostly on cloud detection and typing both over sea and land at a pixel resolution, the goal of ACSM is to detect and screen out the ocean pixels, useless for clear-sky products, while preserving as many useful pixels as

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