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Francisco Salamanca Palou and Alex Mahalov

the supply of food, energy, and water to the new residents. However, compared to native landscapes, buildings and pavements decrease the nocturnal cooling rates promoting a positive urban–rural near-surface air temperature difference, known as the urban heat island (UHI) effect, and modifying the weather and climate from local to global scales (e.g., Oke 1988 ; Oleson et al. 2010 ; Zhao and Wu 2017 ). The UHI phenomenon is the expression of a warmer city relative to its contiguous rural

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Y. T. Eunice Lo, Daniel M. Mitchell, Sylvia I. Bohnenstengel, Mat Collins, Ed Hawkins, Gabriele C. Hegerl, Manoj Joshi, and Peter A. Stott

1. Introduction Increased exposure to high temperatures and, therefore, increased levels of heat-related mortality are projected in a warming world ( Lo et al. 2019 ; Vicedo-Cabrera et al. 2018 ). Urban inhabitants are generally more susceptible to heat stress due to the urban heat island effect ( Fischer et al. 2012 ; Heaviside et al. 2016 ). An urban heat island is characterized by higher near-surface air or surface skin temperatures in a given urban area compared to its rural surroundings

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Douglas M. Leahey and James P. Friend

1162 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY Voz. uxz 10A Model for Predicting the Depth of the Mixing Layer Over an Urban Heat Island with Applications to New York City~ DOUGLAS M. LEAHEY AND JAMES P. Paiv.~DDept. oJ Meteorology and Oceanography, N~v York Un~erslty(Manuscript received 24 June t97t, in revised form It August t971) ABSTRACT Over a city within a mixing layer

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Michael Matson, E. Paul Mcclain, David F. McGinnis Jr., and John A. Pritchard

midwesternand northeastern United States from the NOAA 5 satellite enabled detection of more than 50 urban heatislands. Analysis of digital data from the satellite for selected cities yielded maximum urban-rural temperature differences ranging from 2.6 to 6.5-C. Through computer enhancement and enlargement of thesatellite imagery, the urban heat islands of St. Louis, Washington, DC and Baltimore can be depicted at ausable scale as large as 1:500 000. A comparison of the enhanced thermal infrared imagery

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Menglin S. Jin

1. Introduction Urban heat island effects (UHI) are defined by temperatures in urban regions exceeding those in surrounding rural regions. Traditionally, the UHI is quantified as the difference between the 2-m surface air temperature T 2m of a screen-level weather station (e.g., a World Meteorological Organization site) located in an urban region and T 2m for a nearby rural weather station. First reported by Howard (1833) , the UHI has been studied for decades ( Landsberg 1970 ; Oke 1982

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Jerome D. Fast, Joel C. Torcolini, and Randy Redman

et al. 2000 ). Another application of temperature dataloggers is to determine the spatial characteristics of the urban heat island (UHI) effect by deploying a network of sensors across a city. Previous observations in Phoenix, as with many large cities, have indicated the presence of a UHI. Tarleton and Katz (1995) and Balling and Cerveny (1987) used data from the NWS Phoenix airport and a station in Wickenburg, Arizona, 87 km northwest of Phoenix, to show that daily minimum temperatures in

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C. J. G. Morris, I. Simmonds, and N. Plummer

urban–rural temperature difference known as the urban heat island (UHI) is a well-documented human-induced climate modification. Ackerman (1985) , Moreno-Garcia (1994) , Kidder and Essenwanger (1995) , and Figuerola and Mazzeo (1998) suggest that the wind speed and the amount of cloud cover are the most significant meteorological parameters that influence the intensity and development of the UHI. This is because the cloud amount and wind speed affect the insolation and ventilation, which serve

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Michelle D. Hawkins, Vankita Brown, and Jannie Ferrell

policies and criteria was the recommendation to develop very distinct criteria for urban areas, which tend to be warmer than surrounding rural areas because of the urban heat island effect. Several public health studies indicate the heat island effect, in which land cover characteristics and poor air quality combine to enhance the impacts of heat for city dwellers, further increases the health burden on vulnerable populations within cities ( Anderson and Bell 2009 ; Uejio et al. 2011 ; Berko et al

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Hiroyuki Kusaka, Keiko Nawata, Asuka Suzuki-Parker, Yuya Takane, and Nana Furuhashi

1. Introduction Urbanization alters the amount, intensities, and spatial patterns of precipitation in and around urban areas in a large plain. An extensive historical field campaign project, the Metropolitan Meteorological Experiment (METROMEX), showed that the urban heat island (UHI) increased the frequency and the amount of summertime precipitation in and downwind of St. Louis, Missouri ( Huff and Changnon 1972 ; Changnon 1981 ). Later observational studies supported the METROMEX results

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Neda Yaghoobian, Jan Kleissl, and E. Scott Krayenhoff

1. Introduction The thermal environment of a city has a multifaceted effect on the health of its dwellers and ecological and economic consequences at several scales. Thermal comfort, heat wave mortality, ozone formation, and building energy consumption and resulting carbon dioxide emissions are all impacted to varying degrees by the canopy layer thermal environment and its distinct character relative to rural areas, a difference that is often loosely referred to as the urban heat island. In

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