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Lewis D. Grasso and Thomas J. Greenwald

simulated severe thunderstorm using a sophisticated microphysical scheme has yielded further insight into the cause of the enhanced V and the interaction between infrared radiation and storm microphysics. Results suggested that the enhanced V was produced by the interaction between the overshooting dome and the region of high pressure located upstream. In short, the enhanced V was created by downstream and subsiding transport of relatively cold cloud material ejected from the overshooting dome. The

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. W. Sleator, Further Study ofthe Absorption of Infrared Radiation by WaterVapor, Physical Review, 2d Series,vol. 37, No.11, June 1, 1931, pp. 1493-1507.7. F. 'E. Fowle, The Spectroscopic Determination ofAqueous Vapor, Astrophysical Journal, vol. 35,No. 3, April 1912, pp. 149-162.8. W. W. Sleator and E. R. Phelps, The Fine Structureof the Near Infrared Absorption Bands of Water-Vapor, Astrophysical Journal, vol. 62, No. 1,July 1925, pp. 28-48.9. W. M. Elsasser, New Values for Infrared Absorp

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withthe Angstrom electric com1)ensation pyrheliometer, to whichI had given a modified esterior form and e parallactic motionwith clockwork. On eleven clays in June and July, 1903, I maclea long series of observations on the summit of the G nrnei&at, Canton Wallis, Switzerland, from which I could derivethe radiation of the sun outside our atmosphere. This part ofthe problem is the most dificult one, and according to my viewit can not be solved from measurements of the solar radiationalone. From

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Jean-Jacques Morcrette

downward LW and SW radiation fluxes for the different model configurations, RRTM versus G00 in the LW and SW4 versus SW2 in the SW, for whole- and clear-sky atmospheres. The impact of changing the number of spectral intervals (from four to two) in the near-infrared part of the spectrum is very small for clear-sky SW radiation (a 0.4 W m −2 decrease in the daytime-only average). The impact is larger for cloudy conditions (−2 W m −2 when averaged over daytime only). A new version of the SW scheme, SW6

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Fan Ping, Zhexian Luo, and Xiaofan Li

accretion of snow by graupel ( P GACS ). The exchanges between water and ice hydrometeors are described by accretion of cloud water by snow ( P SACW ) and graupel ( P GACW ), and melting of snow ( P SMLT ) and graupel ( P GMLT ) to rain. The model also includes interactive solar ( Chou et al. 1998 ) and thermal infrared ( Chou et al. 1991 ; Chou and Suarez 1994 ) radiation parameterization schemes that are performed every 3 min. The water and ice clouds affect radiation budgets through parameterized

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Graeme L. Stephens

: Radiative TransJ~r, Dover, 393 pp.. Charlock, T., and B. Herman, 1976: Discussion of the Elsasser for- mulation for infrared fluxes. J. Appl, Meteor., 15, 657-661.Chou, M.-D., and A. Arking, 1980: Computation of infrared cooling rates in the water vapor bands. J. Atmos. Sci., 37, 855-867. , and , 1981: An efficient method for computing the ab sorption of solar radiation by water vapor. J. Atmos, Sci., 38, 798-807.Ch~lek, P., 1978: Extinction and liquid water content of fogs. J. Atmos. Sci

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-electric cells and an electrometer.The variations of the three spectral regions, thermic (infra-red), luminous and ultra-violet, are in close relationto one another. In general, an increase in the total radiation is accompanied by a marked increase in theultra-violet, while a decrease in the total is accompaniedby a relative increase in the infra-red. Owing to the sensitiveness of the instrument, it will be possible to detect slight variations in the total solarradiation, since radiation in narrow spectral

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knowledge of the far infrared spectrum would berather usoful, as will be seen later.LINE STRUCTURE. PRESSURE AND TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCEThe measurements, as w-ell as the quantum theory ofthe water molecule, prove that the water vapor spectrum consists of a large number of very narrow spectral lines. R e need a formula which gives the intensity distributionin a spectral line, i. e. the absorption coefficient as a func- tion of the wavelength or frequency of the radiation.This distribution depends upon

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Central Office in Waqhington, B. C. The reports are incorporated in the table which hitherto has borne the title Severe Local Storms. That table will he found on pages 324-325 of this REVIEW, and it d l appear in approximately the same position hereafter.ON A SIMPLE METHOD OF RECORDlNQ THE TOTAL AND PARTIAL INTENSITIES OF SOLAR RADIATION5-5/@ 6 0 8. 2 By LADISLAUS GORCZY~SRI, D. Bc.(Washington, June 14. ISH). Synopsis.-A simple form of recording p rhelioineter is obtained from the combination of a

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maximum radiation. which is expressed as follon s,where Tis the absolute temperature a i d i,,,,,,. the wave lengthof maximum intensity of radiation expressed in microns :A,,, T= constant.5 February 19. 1903, wa5 the most extraordinary day ah regar& absenceof water vapor in the atinnqphere which has ever h e n noted here. Thegreat water-vapor hands Q $ in the infra-red spectriun were nearlyfilled up, and the long wave length side of the band A1 presented an almo+tunrecpgizable appearance.6The wave

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