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Johannes Verlinde and William R. Cotton

2776 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW VOLUM-121Fitting Microphysical Observations of Nonsteady Convective Cloudsto a Numerical Model: An Application of the Adjoint Techniqueof Data Assimilation to a Kinematic Model JOHANNES VERLINDE* AND WILLIAM R. COTTONDepartment of Atmospheric Science, ~olorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado(Manuscript received 23 November 1992, in final form 2

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Ryan M. Holmes, Jan D. Zika, and Matthew H. England

We thank Hochet and Tailleux (2019) for their comment and interest in our paper. We believe that confusion has arisen here through a difference in interpretation of the term “volume flux” in the context of a control volume that is neither fixed in space nor follows the fluid motion. We start with a kinematic definition of the total flux of volume across a surface defined by a constant value of some property Θ that will later be taken as potential temperature (e.g., Groeskamp et al. 2019

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Qin Xu, Yuan Jiang, and Liping Liu

patterns within severe thunderstorms . Wea. Forecasting , 6 , 32 – 48 . Browning , K. A. , and R. Wexler , 1968 : The determination of kinematic properties of a wind field using Doppler radar . J. Appl. Meteor. , 7 , 105 – 113 . Doviak , R. J. , and D. S. Zrnic , 2006 : Doppler Radar and Weather Observations. 2nd ed. Dover Publications, 562 pp. Eilts , M. D. , and S. D. Smith , 1990 : Efficient dealiasing of Doppler velocities using local environment constraints . J. Atmos

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Jason M. Apke, John R. Mecikalski, Kristopher Bedka, Eugene W. McCaul Jr., Cameron R. Homeyer, and Christopher P. Jewett

observable signatures in satellite, radar data, and LMAs to examine how well the CTD fields from an improved A16 mAMV approach (described in section 3c ) characterize kinematics in DC. b. Remote sensing observations of convective updrafts Ground-based multi-Doppler radar networks have traditionally been used to characterize the three-dimensional updraft flow structure of severe DC for many years, typically over small domains (e.g., Ray 1976 ; Ray et al. 1978 ; Lemon and Doswell 1979 ; Ray et al

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Wen-Chau Lee, Ben Jong-Dao Jou, Pao-Liang Chang, and Shiung-Ming Deng

. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 60, 1014–1023. Brown, R. A., and V. T. Wood, 1991: On the interpretation of single-Doppler velocity patterns within severe thunderstorms. Wea. Forecasting, 6, 32–48. ——, L. R. Lemon, and D. W. Burgess, 1978: Tornado detection by pulsed Doppler radar. Mon. Wea. Rev., 106, 29–38. Browning, K. A., and R. Wexler, 1968: The determination of kinematic properties of a wind field using Doppler

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Hendrik L. Tolman, Wayne L. Neu, and Leslie C. Bender

1. Introduction Lin and Huang (1996b , hereafter denoted as LH) discuss kinematic aspects of the new Goddard Coastal Wave Model (GCWAM). Their model is compared to the well-known WAM model ( WAMDI Group 1988 ; Komen et al. 1994 ) and to the WAVEWATCH model ( Tolman 1991b , 1992 ) using theoretical considerations and test cases. The basic equation of GCWAM is given as [LH, Eq. (11)] 1 which is identical to the governing equation of WAVEWATCH 2 and represents an extension of the governing

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Charles A. Doswell III

1242 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VOL. 41, NO. 7NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCEA Kinematic Analysis of Fr. ontogenesis Associated with a Nondivergent Vortex - CHARLES A. DOSWELL IIINational Oceanic and Atmospheric ,4dministration, Environmental Research Laboratories, Weather Research Program, Boulder. CO 80303 lg ~uly 1983 and 22 November 1993ABSTRACT An idealized model of a votXex

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Edwin Kessler

2862 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW VOLUME II$Kinematic Effect of Vertical Drafts on Precipitation near Earth's Surface EDWIN KESSLER Departments of Geography and Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, Norman. OK 73019 16 February 1987 and 7 May 19871. Introduction Precipitation is commonly measured by raingagesat the Earth's surface, and by analysis of the intensityof radar echoes

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Frank Chew

932 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUME 15Comments on "Gulf Stream Kinematics along an Isopycnal Float Trajectory" NOAA/,4tlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Miami. Florida 22 June 1987 and 5 October 1987 Levine el at. (1986) are the first to make direct measurements of the vertical motion in a strong meandering/low. The work provides not only the

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E. R. Levine, D. N. Connors, P. C. Cornillon, and H. T. Rossby

JULY 1986 LEVINE, CONNORS, CORNILLON AND ROSSBY 1317Gulf Stream Kinematics along an lsopycnal Float Trajectory E. R. LEVINE AND D. N. CONNORSApplied Oceanography Group, Naval Underwater Systems Center, Newport, RI 02841 P. C. CORNILLON AND H. T. ROSSBYGraduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881(Manuscript received 19 February 1985, in final form 5

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