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Daniel G. Kingston, Anne K. Fleig, Lena M. Tallaksen, and David M. Hannah

. , 2011 : Predictability of Mediterranean climate variables from oceanic variability. Part 1: Sea surface temperature regimes . Climate Dyn. , 36 , 811 – 823 . Hu, Z. , and Huang B. , 2006 : Air–sea coupling in the North Atlantic during summer . Climate Dyn. , 26 , 441 – 457 . Hurrell, J. W. , and van Loon H. , 1997 : Decadal variations in climate associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation . Climatic Change , 36 , 301 – 326 . James, P. M. , 2007 : An objective classification

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M. Petracca, L. P. D’Adderio, F. Porcù, G. Vulpiani, S. Sebastianelli, and S. Puca

to define potentialities and limitations in the use of GPM-DPR products as reference for the validation of the H SAF precipitation products over the MSG full disk. Italy is an ideal test bed for complex terrain in a Mediterranean climatic regime, as it consists of a mixture of mountainous terrain (Alps, Apennines) and flatter/coastal areas. The country is well instrumented by a network of 22 weather radars ( Vulpiani et al. 2014 ; Rinollo et al. 2013 ), as well as a network of around 3000 rain

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Wenguang Wei, Zhongwei Yan, and P. D. Jones

usually a driving process behind it (e.g., global warming and transition from one to another phase of some large-scale climate oscillation). For Xinjiang in northwestern China, previous studies have shown that, during the past half century, increasing atmospheric water vapor mainly comes from the North Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean for summer and from the Caspian Sea and the Mediterranean for winter ( Dai et al. 2007 ). A major increase of the water vapor in Xinjiang happened in the middle of the 1980

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Xing Yuan, Eric F. Wood, Nathaniel W. Chaney, Justin Sheffield, Jonghun Kam, Miaoling Liang, and Kaiyu Guan

( Camberlin et al. 2001 ). Recently, the Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea are receiving more attentions for their contributions to the rainfall variability over eastern and northern Africa, respectively ( Bowden and Semazzi 2007 ; Gimeno et al. 2012 ). These teleconnections have been used to form the basis for developing statistical approaches in forecasting drought at seasonal scales ( Barnston et al. 1996 ; Mason 1998 ). On the other hand, atmosphere–ocean–land coupled general circulation models

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A. Verhoef, A. Diaz-Espejo, J. R. Knight, L. Villagarcía, and J. E. Fernández

vapor pressure gradient and hence favors adsorption. This increase in h a , or at least the leveling off of its sharp decline started during the morning, is caused by a sudden change in wind direction, from southeast to southwest, bringing in moister air that originates from the Mediterranean Sea (approximately 80 km to the southwest of the Coria experimental site). Vapor adsorption is larger for the OLS than for the ILS. Significant vapor adsorption generally ceases around 1800 UTC, because e s

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Daniel G. Kingston, Glenn R. McGregor, David M. Hannah, and Damian M. Lawler

climate indices: The North Atlantic Oscillation, El Nino Southern Oscillation and beyond. Proc. Roy. Soc. London , 270B , 2087 – 2096 . Stewart, I. T. , Cayan D. R. , and Dettinger M. D. , 2005 : Changes toward earlier streamflow timing across western North America. J. Climate , 18 , 1136 – 1155 . 10.1175/JCLI3321.1 Struglia, M. V. , Mariotti A. , and Filograsso A. , 2004 : River discharge into the Mediterranean Sea: Climatology and aspects of the observed variability. J

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Zexuan Xu, Alan M. Rhoades, Hans Johansen, Paul A. Ullrich, and William D. Collins

from the Sierra Nevada ( Wilkinson et al. 2002 ). In addition to resolving the Sierra Nevada mountain range and Central Valley, the accurate representation of California’s Mediterranean climate, characterized by cold, wet winters and warm, dry summers, is critical. California receives one-half of its total annual precipitation during the winter months from December to February (DJF; California Data Exchange Center 2016 ), of which two-thirds precipitates in the northern and mountainous parts of

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Zuohao Cao, Murray D. Mackay, Christopher Spence, and Vincent Fortin

Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS) bulk formula, which requires inputs of zonal and meridional components of 10-m wind, total cloud cover, 2-m air temperature, 2-m dewpoint temperature, total precipitation, and mean sea level pressure. Refer to Wang et al. (2015) , Lebeaupin Brossier et al. (2015) , and Madec et al. (2016) for further details. d. Assessment method Performance of abovementioned approaches in computing sensible and latent heat fluxes is evaluated using a correlation coefficient and a

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Sharon E. Nicholson

, which produces its own circulation system and rainfall regime ( Ba and Nicholson 1998 ). Both statistical and dynamical models have been applied to seasonal forecasting in this region, with the statistical models providing greater skill ( Diro et al. 2011b ; van Oldenborgh et al. 2005 ). The statistical models exploit teleconnections between rainfall and other variables. Most relate rainfall to surface parameters, generally sea surface temperatures (SSTs). A notable exception is the forecast model

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P. Irannejad and A. Henderson-Sellers

Schemes (PILPS; Henderson-Sellers et al. 1995 , 1996 ; Luo et al. 2003 ) coordinates the AMIP Diagnostic Subproject 12 (DSP 12) on land surface processes and parameterizations. The AMIP framework permits evaluation of the AGCMs’ simulated surface energy and water budgets under common specifications of radiative forcing and observed ocean and sea ice boundary conditions ( Gates 1992 ; Gates et al. 1999 ). The first phase of the AMIP (AMIP I) involved over 30 modeling groups and nearly as many

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