Search Results

You are looking at 121 - 130 of 27,369 items for :

  • All content x
Clear All
Xiuzhen Li, Yongqin David Chen, and Wen Zhou

–Burma Trough (IBT) is an important system in determining the intensity of winter precipitation over south China, as it supplies most of the moisture from the Bay of Bengal (BoB) when the moisture from the western North Pacific (WNP) is interrupted to a large extent ( Duan et al. 2012 ; Qin et al. 1991 ; Zhang et al. 2007 ). It was found by Qin et al. (1991) that associated with the activity of the IBT, the BoB acts as the only moisture source for precipitation over the Yunnan province in winter. Three

Full access
Stephan Pfahl, Erica Madonna, Maxi Boettcher, Hanna Joos, and Heini Wernli

compared to the Southern Hemisphere. M14 also determined the evolution of key parameters like pressure, humidity, and potential vorticity (PV) along the WCB trajectories and analyzed in detail the formation of dynamically relevant PV anomalies. In this second part of the climatology, two important aspects of the WCB moisture cycle are investigated: the evaporative sources of WCB humidity and the relevance of WCBs for total and extreme precipitation. The coupling between atmospheric dynamics and the

Full access
Yang Lu, Susan C. Steele-Dunne, and Gabriëlle J. M. De Lannoy

estimates can be further improved by constraining EF using soil wetness information calculated from precipitation data ( Sini et al. 2008 ), or in situ soil moisture measurements ( Farhadi et al. 2014 ; Lu et al. 2016 ) or remote sensing ( Farhadi et al. 2016 ; Lu et al. 2017 ; Xu et al. 2019 ) soil moisture retrievals. A potential risk of assimilating remotely sensed soil moisture retrievals lies in the retrieval algorithm, which utilizes land surface parameters and background information including

Free access
Youlong Xia, Michael B. Ek, Yihua Wu, Trent Ford, and Steven M. Quiring

1. Introduction Soil moisture information is valuable for weather and climate prediction ( de Goncalves et al. 2006 ; de Rosnay et al. 2013 ; Koster et al. 2009 ; Yang et al. 2011 ), flood control ( Pal and Eltahir 2002 ; Martinis et al. 2009 ; Koster et al. 2014 ), slope failure control ( Ray et al. 2010 ), reservoir management ( Maurer and Lettenmaier 2004 ), geotechnical engineering, water quality monitoring, and drought monitoring ( Atlas et al. 1993 ; Mo and Lettenmaier 2014 ; Xia

Full access
Viviana Maggioni, Rolf H. Reichle, and Emmanouil N. Anagnostou

1. Introduction Surface and root zone soil moisture control the partitioning of available energy incident on the land surface. For this reason, soil moisture is a key variable in the water cycle that impacts local weather, such as cloud coverage and precipitation, and hydrological parameters, such as runoff and evapotranspiration ( Betts and Ball 1998 ). Therefore an accurate characterization of soil water content can lead to improvements not only in weather and climate prediction, but also in

Full access
Matthew A. Janiga and Chidong Zhang

it propagates while the associated latent heat release generates teleconnection patterns that affect global weather and climate (e.g., Zhang 2005 , 2013 ). The ability of global operational and climate models to capture moisture–convection interactions within this convective envelope is closely related to their being able to simulate its growth and propagation (e.g., Bechtold et al. 2008 ; Hirons et al. 2013b , a ; Kim et al. 2014 ; Klingaman et al. 2015 ). Observational studies have

Full access
Jifu Yin, Xiwu Zhan, Youfei Zheng, Jicheng Liu, Li Fang, and Christopher R. Hain

1. Introduction The application of complex water balance formulations embedded within land surface models (LSMs) is a common approach to track soil moisture (SM), soil temperature (LST), and surface energy fluxes from the short to long term ( Ek et al. 2003 ; Mo et al. 2010 ; Crow et al. 2012 ). However, these model-based estimates are subject to errors of models and their inputs of meteorological forcing data ( Reichle and Koster 2004 ). Consequently, it is believed that a land data

Full access
Jun-Chao Yang, Yu Zhang, Ingo Richter, and Xiaopei Lin

1. Introduction The hydrological cycle of the climate system is sustained by atmospheric moisture transport. Specifically, transbasin moisture transport exchanges freshwater between oceanic basins. In the lower troposphere, the easterly trade winds carry moist air from the Atlantic, over the mountain ranges that extend along the western coast of the American continent, and finally into the eastern tropical Pacific ( Zaucker and Broecker 1992 ; Richter and Xie 2010 ). We term this phenomenon

Restricted access
Lei Meng and Steven M. Quiring

1. Introduction Surface soil moisture plays an important role in controlling the exchange of land–atmosphere water and energy fluxes ( Walker and Rowntree 1977 ). It is also an important indicator of near-surface hydrologic conditions and so it is commonly used for drought monitoring ( Oglesby and Erickson 1989 ; Quiring and Papakryiakou 2003 ) and climate forecasting ( Koster and Suarez 2001 ). Field measurement of soil moisture is time-consuming and expensive, making it difficult to monitor

Full access
Jung-Eun Kim and Song-You Hong

1. Introduction Hope for accurate seasonal simulations lies with simulating the atmospheric response to slowly varying states of the ocean and land surface components of the earth system that can be predicted weeks to months in advance (e.g., Koster et al. 2004 ). The critical importance of the ocean surface temperature is relatively well known. Another crucial slowly varying component of the earth system is soil moisture, which can influence weather through its impact on evaporation and other

Full access