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K. S. Gage, J. R. Mcafee, W. L. Ecklund, D. A. Carter, C. R. Williams, P. E. Johnston, and A. C. Riddle

winds are included.1. Introduction Since 1984 the Tropical Dynamics and ClimateProgram area of NOAA's Aeronomy Laboratory hasused wind-profiling radars to study a wide range ofdynamical phenomena ranging in scale from turbulence, convection, and gravity waves to planetary-scaleequatorial waves and the Hadley and Walker circulations. To examine these dynamical systems, a networkof 50-MHz VHF wind-profiling radars was constructedacross the equatorial Pacific Ocean basin (Gage et al.1990). Each wind

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Wayne M. Angevine, W. L. Ecklund, D. A. Carter, K. S. Gage, and K. P. Moran

continuously at Platteville through thesummer and fall of 1991.2. Simultaneous correction for wind The largest source of error in previous RASS measurements is the neglect of the wind velocity along thebeam. If the measurement is made with a verticallypointing radar beam, it may be reasonable to assumethat the wind velocity averages to zero over a sufficiently long time. In the planetary boundary layer orin mountain wave conditions, this assumption is notvalid. One may also want to make measurements

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Peter T. May and Richard G. Strauch

in the spectrum finder algorithm. NOAA Tech. Memo. ERL WPL-147, NOAA, Wave Propagation Lab., Boulder, CO, 26 pp.Farley, D. T., 1983: Coherent integration. MAP Handbook, Vol. 9,S. A. Bowhill and B. Edwards, Eds., 507. Fischler, M. A., and R. C. Bolles, 1981: Random sample consensus: A paradigm for model fitting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography. Commun. Assoc. Comput. Mach., 24, 381-395.Hildebrand, P. H., and R. S. Sekhon, 1974: Objective determination of

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Jenny A. U. Nilsson, Peter Sigray, and Robert H. Tyler

power cable electric pollution (confirmed by the operator) took place during a period of severe geomagnetic activity. This ionospherically induced noise was clearly visible in the Planetary Magnetic Three-Hour Indices (viz., the Kp index), and it was decided that periods with a Kp index exceeding 5 were to be excluded from the forthcoming analysis. The potential difference data series consequently includes signals induced by the ocean as well as ionospheric noise, and in order to extract the

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Ann E. Gargett

rare;are expensive to maintain and run; and in operation are often restricted by adverse conditions of weather, surface waves, or oceanic velocity shears. All of these features lead to undersampling of the processes that generate ocean turbulence. In the open ocean, the vast majority of turbulence profiler measurements still come from the upper kilometer, geographic coverage is sparse, and there are no measurements under severe winter storms. Where and when it has been possible to take

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James W. Wilson, Tammy M. Weckwerth, J. Vivekanandan, Roger M. Wakimoto, and Robert W. Russell

objective analysis system. Mort. Wea. Rev., 87, 367-374.Doviak, R. J., and M. Berger, 1980: Turbulence and waves in the optically clear planetary boundary layer resolved by dual-Dopp ler radars. Radio Sci., 15, 297-317. , and D. S. Zrnir, 1984: Doppler Radar and Weather Obser vations. Academic Press, 458 pp. -, P. S. Ray, R. G. Stmuch, and L. J. Miller, 1976: Error estimation in wind fields derived from dual-Doppler radar measurement. J. Appl. Meteor., 15, 868-878.Drake, V. A., and R. A

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D. Offiler

and waves were made from several platforms in order tocalibrate these parameters derived from radar instruments on board the ERS-I satellite. Over several weeks theU.K. Meteorological Research Flight C-130 aircraft measured !ow4evel winds beneath the scatterometer swath.Together with data from other aimraft, ships, and buoys, an objective analysis scheme was used to form thebest estimate of the local wind field for a quick-look comparison with the ERS-I scattemmeter data, and laterto determine an

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Bruno Buongiorno Nardelli and Rosalia Santoleri

–Atmosphere Emitted Radiance Interferometer. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 81 : 1525 – 1536 . Kerr, Y. H. , Waldteufel P. , and Berger M. , 2001 : Mission objectives and scientific requirements of the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) Mission. Tech. Rep. EEOM-SMOS-MRD, ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, Netherlands, 44 pp . Killworth, P. D. and Blundell J. R. , 2003 : Long extratropical planetary wave propagation in the presence of slowly varying mean flow and bottom topography. Part I: The local problem

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Stephen S. Leroy, Chi O. Ao, Olga P. Verkhoglyadova, and Mayra I. Oyola

planetary waves are larger than lower in the atmosphere, the difference between dry temperature and kinetic temperature at ~50 hPa is much less than 0.01 K ( Danzer et al. 2014 ), and the complex phenomena associated with atmospheric multipath and diffraction are not present. In total, 50 383 radio occultation soundings were obtained in January 2007, and 54 482 in July 2007. Bayesian interpolation can be applied to data collected over any length of time. To suppress biases in monthly climatologies

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Brian Sanderson and Gary Brassington

waves that adjust pressure are fast relative to the advective processes that cause the temperature and salinity gradients. It follows that the collocated differencing operator, while effective for the geostrophic pressure gradient, is quite inappropriate for advection and is also inadequate for the treatment of the continuity equation which relates directly to the fast barotropic mode. Cell faces at land–water boundaries impose a zero gradient across the boundary. Applications that are not

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