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Hannah Torres and Kamal Alsharif

( White House 2016 ). The list of resilience-building initiatives could stretch on. At this grand scale, resilience tends to be defined rather abstractly, which may facilitate its flexibility for context-specific applications at local scales. The National Academies’ report, for example, defines resilience as “The ability to prepare and plan for, absorb, recover from, or more successfully adapt to actual or potential adverse events” ( National Academies 2012 , p. 16), which aligns with national and

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Juan Declet-Barreto, Kim Knowlton, G. Darrel Jenerette, and Alexander Buyantuev

adopting heat-mitigation plans as part of climate resilience and adaptation planning ( Hewitt et al. 2014 ). UHI mitigation typically consists of reducing the amount of solar radiation that is absorbed by impervious surfaces. Two common mechanisms for achieving this include altering surface covers by increasing the fraction of total solar radiation reflected (i.e., albedo) and increasing vegetative cover. Increasing albedo can reduce the amount of heat absorbed during daytime hours, thereby reducing

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Ethan D. Coffel and Radley M. Horton

efficient over the coming years, the full benefit of these improvements may be tempered by less favorable climate conditions. While we appreciate the details noted in this comment, we emphasize that the goal of our original study was to draw attention to more frequent weight restriction as an issue worth considering by airlines and aircraft manufacturers in their planning efforts. While the details suggested by Hane are important areas for future research, it is important that future studies consider

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Gabrielle Wong-Parodi, Baruch Fischhoff, and Benjamin Strauss

; IPCC 2013 ; Crossett et al. 2013 ). Although the risks of flooding demand responses by communities (e.g., zoning, levees, wetlands) and societies (e.g., mitigating climate change), there are also many actions that individuals can take to reduce their personal risk. Low-cost, effective measures include creating an evacuation plan, moving vehicles to higher ground, and making copies of important documents. Higher-cost measures include raising a home on pilings, purchasing flood insurance, and moving

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Gabrielle Wong-Parodi and Irina Feygina

risks, such as injury and/or disease, or damage to one’s home, as well as tertiary risks, such as disability and/or death after injury/disease ( Keim 2016 ). Mitigating these risks involves a different, although potentially related, set of behaviors: preparation. Murakami et al. (2015) surveyed patients receiving dialysis for treatment of end-stage renal disease in areas affected by Superstorm Sandy and found that those who had prepared (i.e., made plans to get to safety if disaster is imminent

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Elizabeth C. Weatherhead, Greg E. Bodeker, Alessandro Fassò, Kai-Lan Chang, Jeffrey K. Lazo, C. T. M. Clack, Dale F. Hurst, Birgit Hassler, Jason M. English, and Soner Yorgun

environmental monitoring networks have turned to trend detection—both planning new networks and optimizing existing ones for the detection of trends ( Weatherhead et al. 2005 ; MacDonald 2005 ). Royle and Nychka (1998) offered coverage designs to optimize distance-based metrics. Van Groenigen (2000) suggested the use of variogram patterns for optimizing sampling schemes. Royle (2002) expanded on earlier work to incorporate modifications to address some of the computationally challenging questions

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G. Roder, G. Sofia, Z. Wu, and P. Tarolli

spatial identification and the inclusion of vulnerable people into the risk management planning process have been widely discussed and fostered in the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction ( Aitsi-Selmi et al. 2016 ). It emerged that it could enhance effective mitigation plans aimed at increasing social capacities ( Dunning and Durden 2011 ) serving as a communication tool among all the actors involved in the disaster management framework, from academic communities to political, governmental

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Melanie M. Colavito, Sarah F. Trainor, Nathan P. Kettle, and Alison York

1. Introduction Climate change is driving rapid changes in social–ecological systems. Land managers are struggling to keep up with these changes while working to integrate the best available science in decision-making. This challenge is especially poignant in fire management—the planning for and fighting of wildland fires—in the United States, where there is a clear link between climate drivers and fires but variability among ecological regions ( Littell et al. 2009 ; Marlon et al. 2009

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Jessica Bolson and Kenneth Broad

generate an extraordinary response. From the response and the relaxed environment in the room, it seemed that this was not the first time this type of information had been presented in this setting. And in fact, seasonal climate information has been a routine part of the SFWMD planning process since 2000. However routine this practice may be at the SFWMD, this is not the case for water management agencies across the United States. In fact, although seasonal climate information and forecast improvement

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Esther D. Mullens and Renee McPherson

plains and southeastern United States produced widespread mixed winter precipitation. Numerous power outages and hundreds of traffic accidents, road closures, and delays were reported [National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) Storm Data ]. Around the nation, approximately three-quarters of state departments of transportation overspent their planned budgets on winter maintenance because of the frequency of winter weather ( Slone 2014 ). Freezing precipitation—especially, freezing rain

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