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Sven Kotlarski, Frank Paul, and Daniela Jacob

RCM results to the target resolution of the MBM and could optionally also correct for systematic errors in the RCM output. Once this interface has been set up, the effects of regional climatic changes on glacier mass balance can be assessed in a straightforward way. The present study, consisting of two separate parts, investigates the benefits and the limitations of forcing a distributed glacier mass balance model with the output of a state-of-the-art RCM. For this purpose, a test site in the

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David Lobell, Govindasamy Bala, Art Mirin, Thomas Phillips, Reed Maxwell, and Doug Rotman

1. Introduction Alteration of soil moisture by irrigation can influence local climate by an amount comparable to or, in some cases, in excess of the effects of other climate forcings such as greenhouse gas changes ( Bonfils and Lobell 2007 ; Kueppers et al. 2007 ). Improved quantification of the effects of irrigation will be needed for projections of climate change that inform adaptation efforts, particularly in developing regions where irrigation expansion continues at a much faster rate than

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Rebecca L. Gianotti, Dongfeng Zhang, and Elfatih A. B. Eltahir

1. Introduction The Maritime Continent is a vitally important region for global rainfall and circulation processes, due to large inputs of heat and moisture into the upper troposphere from intense convection in the region. Therefore, accurate simulation of the climate of the Maritime Continent region is critical for simulations of both regional and global circulations under current and future climate conditions ( Neale and Slingo 2003 ). But future changes to the climate of this region still

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Song Yang, Yundi Jiang, Dawei Zheng, R. Wayne Higgins, Qin Zhang, Vernon E. Kousky, and Min Wen

. Furthermore, a comparison of Figs. 3a–e with Figs. 3f–j indicates that T126 performs better than T62 in simulating the regional precipitation. As seen from the differences in annual means ( Figs. 3e and 3j ), obvious improvement from T62 to T126 occurs over the northern part of the country, especially over the northern Pacific–West (NPW) and the Great Lakes where the CFS overestimates regional precipitation. This improvement is at least partially related to the geographical effects of topography, land

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Jessica L. Conroy and Jonathan T. Overpeck

of monsoon rains is essential for effective planning and alleviation of future hydrologic stress within this densely inhabited region ( Webster et al. 1998 ). However, projections of future Asian monsoon precipitation vary from model to model, and many models do not correctly simulate regional precipitation, evaporation, sea surface temperature (SST), and air–sea interactions ( Bollasina and Nigam 2009 ). Asian monsoon predictability and accurate projections of the future Asian monsoon require an

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Nicholas A. Bond and Meghan F. Cronin

counterparts from NNR. The radiative fluxes are especially prone to error due to the difficulties that reanalyses in general (not just the NNR) have in characterizing clouds and their effects (e.g., Cronin et al. 2006a , b ). On the other hand, NNR and other reanalyses provide reliable descriptions of regional atmospheric circulations ( Moore and Renfrew 2002 ; Renfrew et al. 2002 ; Ladd and Bond 2002 ). These products therefore are suitable for depicting the weather patterns associated with periods of

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Apostolos Voulgarakis and Drew T. Shindell

observational estimates of ECS or TCR is comparable to estimates using models ( Stott et al. 2006 ; Knutti and Tomassini 2008 ; Forest et al. 2008 ; Knutti and Hegerl 2008 ). Although there have been many studies looking at global climate sensitivity, there has been little focus on constraining the sensitivity of regional climate to radiative forcings. Here, we use global surface temperature observation datasets to extract useful information on the temperature sensitivity for different latitudinal zones

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Steve Vavrus, Michael Notaro, and Azar Zarrin

-effect snowfall trends in the Laurentian Great Lakes using a temporally homogeneous data set . J. Great Lakes Res. , 35 , 23 – 29 . Lavoie , R. L. , 1972 : A mesoscale numerical model of lake-effect storms . J. Atmos. Sci. , 29 , 1025 – 1040 . Lofgren , B. , 1997 : Simulated effects of idealized Laurentian Great Lakes on regional and large-scale climate . J. Climate , 10 , 2847 – 2858 . Maesaka , T. , G. W. K. Moore , Q. Liu , and K. Tsuboki , 2006 : A simulation of a lake effect

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Lars Gerlitz, Eva Steirou, Christoph Schneider, Vincent Moron, Sergiy Vorogushyn, and Bruno Merz

.1006/asle.2000.0018 Syed , F. S. , F. Giorgi , J. S. Pal , and M. P. King , 2006 : Effect of remote forcings on the winter precipitation of central southwest Asia. Part 1: Observations . Theor. Appl. Climatol. , 86 , 147 – 160 , . 10.1007/s00704-005-0217-1 Syed , F. S. , F. Giorgi , J. S. Pal , and K. Keay , 2010 : Regional climate model simulation of winter climate over central–southwest Asia, with emphasis on NAO and ENSO effects

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Benjamin I. Cook, Edward R. Cook, Kevin J. Anchukaitis, Paul C. Huth, John E. Thompson, and Shanan F. Smiley

. , 2003 : Assessment of urban versus rural in situ surface temperatures in the contiguous United States: No difference found. J. Climate , 16 , 2941 – 2959 . Pielke Sr. , R. , and Coauthors , 2002 : Problems in evaluating regional and local trends in temperature: An example from eastern Colorado, USA. Int. J. Climatol. , 22 , 421 – 434 . Quayle , R. , D. Easterling , T. Karl , and P. Hughes , 1991 : Effects of recent thermometer changes in the cooperative station network

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