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Benjamin Scheifele, Rich Pawlowicz, Tobias Sommer, and Alfred Wüest

questions regarding the details of double-diffusive transport and layering remain active topics of research, as highlighted by a number of recent studies ( Carpenter and Timmermans 2014 ; Sommer et al. 2013a ; Flanagan et al. 2013 ; Radko et al. 2014 ). There are two modes of double diffusion: the salt fingering mode, which may occur when temperature and salinity both decrease with depth, and the diffusive convection mode, which may occur when temperature and salinity both increase with depth. This

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Steven L. Morey and Dmitry S. Dukhovskoy

1. Introduction Spatial and temporal variability of salinity is the major factor for determining the distribution of estuarine biota and habitat. The salinity regime in estuaries is controlled by a number of factors such as river discharge, coastal runoff, local precipitation–evaporation, winds, and water exchange with the ocean (dominantly due to astronomic tides). Understanding the roles these external forcing mechanisms play in controlling the salinity in an estuary is important for

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M. Susan Lozier and Laurie Sindlinger

1. Introduction Surface waters of the eastern North Atlantic that flow into the Mediterranean Sea through the Strait of Gibraltar are subject to an excess of evaporation over precipitation in this enclosed sea, making them more saline and dense before they exit the strait and return to the North Atlantic. After exiting the strait, these return waters mix with the surrounding waters in the Gulf of Cadiz ( Baringer and Price 1997 ) to produce a water mass known as Mediterranean Overflow Water

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Julie Alexander and Adam H. Monahan

model was used to study climate feedbacks after a major disruption of the THC. In this study, the THC was made to collapse by applying strong freshwater forcing to the top layers of the North Atlantic. After about 100 yr, the model’s THC had largely recovered and most climatic anomalies had disappeared. The rapid growth of perturbations in a system is of considerable theoretical interest because it may be a precursor to a large-scale event. Finding the spatial structure of the optimal salinity and

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Earle A. Wilson and Stephen C. Riser

1. Introduction The variability of salinity in the Bay of Bengal (BoB) has significant influence over a wide range of physical processes in the region. This influence is mainly derived from the role salinity plays in setting the bay’s near-surface stratification. In the upper 50 m of the bay, salinity rapidly increases with depth and often forms a strong halocline near the surface (e.g., Shetye et al. 1996 ; Thadathil et al. 2007 ). The presence of this near-surface halocline sets a

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William S. Kessler

). However, despite the overall scantiness of subsurface ocean data in the South Pacific, in a few locations sufficient observations exist to construct time series that might show variations in the strength and properties of the South Pacific STC. The general paucity of salinity observations has restricted the STC observational focus to studies of temperature alone, but a few longitudes have seen repeated CTD sections that do resolve interannual subsurface salinity fluctuations, and the purpose of the

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J. Boutin, Y. Chao, W. E. Asher, T. Delcroix, R. Drucker, K. Drushka, N. Kolodziejczyk, T. Lee, N. Reul, G. Reverdin, J. Schanze, A. Soloviev, L. Yu, J. Anderson, L. Brucker, E. Dinnat, A. Santos-Garcia, W. L. Jones, C. Maes, T. Meissner, W. Tang, N. Vinogradova, and B. Ward

A synthesis of present knowledge about the formation and evolution of vertical and horizontal variability in near-surface salinity at scales relevant to satellite salinity is presented. Photo: Raindrops on a water surface. [ID 5563454 ©Sailorman: .] L-band microwave radiometers on both the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS; Mecklenburg et al. 2012 ) and Aquarius/Satélite de Aplicaciones Científicas-D (SAC-D) ( Lagerloef 2012 ) satellites have now demonstrated that they are

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Duncan C. Blanchard and A. Theodore Spencer

182 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES Vo~.~xiE21Condensation Nuclei and the Crys~_!llzation of Saline Drops~DUNCAN C. BLANCHARD AND A. THEODORE SPENCER Woods H ol~ Oce~nogr a p ki~ Institution, Woods H olo, M a~s. (Manuscript received 10 October 1963)ABSTRACT Saline drops oi from 5 to 100 microns diameter were sprayed onto spider webs, onto glass fibers, and ontoplane surfaces. The drops were composed

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Theodore D. Foster and Eddy C. Carmack

36 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLO~E6Temperature and Salinity Structure in the Weddell Sea Tm~o~oir~ D. Fos~i~ AND EDDY C. CA2~CX~Scripps Institution of Oc~anograpl~y, La $olla, Calif. 02003(Manuscript received 6 March 1975, in revised form 24 July 1975) The general circulation of water in the Weddell Sea is part of a large cyclonic gyre. A section takenacross this gyre from the Scotia Ridge to

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C. Shaji and A. Gangopadhyay

section, we discuss the development of the temperature–salinity (T–S) feature model for the WICC upwelling system. The rationale for developing such a model stems from the fact that synoptic forecasting requires representation of upwelling in the initial state. The complex interplay of equatorial surface flow, poleward undercurrent, and remote propagation of Kelvin waves from the Bay of Bengal can be simulated in some numerical ocean models ( McCreary et al. 1993 ; Shankar et al. 2002 ; Shaji et al

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