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Roy Barkan, James C. McWilliams, M. Jeroen Molemaker, Jun Choi, Kaushik Srinivasan, Alexander F. Shchepetkin, and Annalisa Bracco

buoyancy gradients. Riverine outflow enhances submesoscale currents by increasing lateral buoyancy gradients but suppresses them by decreasing boundary layer depth. In this paper, we review the model setup ( section 2 ) and analyze temperature–salinity relations with an emphasis on the role of submesoscale currents ( section 3 ). In section 4 , we investigate the cross-shelf transport mechanisms of fresh river water west of the Bird’s Foot and in the river jet region east of the Bird’s Foot. Finally

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Roland A. de Szoeke and Scott R. Springer

1. Introduction It has been a century since the demonstration of the relation of ocean currents to density gradients ( Helland-Hansen and Nansen 1909 ). The data from the Meteor expedition ( Wüst 1935 ) showed the close alignment of core layers in the ocean, on which water properties like salinity, dissolved oxygen, etc., assumed extremal values, with strata of density corrected, however crudely, for adiabatic compression. [Usually, σ t was used, which is merely the in situ density with its

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Dipanjan Chaudhuri, Debasis Sengupta, Eric D’Asaro, R. Venkatesan, and M. Ravichandran

warm subsurface ocean temperatures (e.g., Lin et al. 2009 ; Jaimes and Shay 2009 , 2015 ; Yablonsky and Ginis 2013 ; Girishkumar and Ravichandran 2012 ; Lin et al. 2014 ; Balaguru et al. 2018 ). Some recent studies address the interaction between tropical cyclones and the ocean in the presence of a “barrier layer,” that is, a deep, warm isothermal layer lying beneath a shallow, salinity-stratified layer ( Sengupta et al. 2008 ; Balaguru et al. 2012 , 2014 ; Neetu et al. 2012 ; Vincent et

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Raymond W. Schmitt

JULY 1981 RAYMOND W. SCHMITT 1015Form of the Temperature-Salinity Relationship in the Central Water: Evidence for Double-Diffusive Mixing~ RAYMOND W. SCHMITTWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543(Manuscript received 26 December 1980, in final form 3 April 1981)ABSTRACT Ingham (1966) reported that the temperature-salinity relationships in the

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Shih-Nan Chen and Lawrence P. Sanford

is about 0.6 m s −1 in the middle of estuary (half of the salt intrusion). A weak coastal current (∼0.05 m s −1 ) is specified on the shelf to transport the river plume. Temperature is fixed at 15°C throughout the domain. Salinity at the river end is set to 0, whereas at the shelf boundaries salinity is nudged to an oceanic value of 32. The k − ε turbulence closure ( Jones and Launder 1972 ) is activated with the stability function proposed by Canuto et al. (2001) . The k − ε closure has

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Olivier Arzel and Alain Colin de Verdière

1. Introduction The fate of the thermohaline circulation is a major issue for climate change and the observation of its large-scale components, mass, heat, and freshwater transports, has progressed at a fast pace following the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). As deep water is produced continuously and as the interior properties of the ocean hardly change over a century of temperature–salinity observations, Munk (1966) and Munk and Wunsch (1998) conclude that the deep water has to

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Norihisa Imasato and Bo Qiu

JULY 1987 NORIHISA IMASATO AND BO QIU 953An Event in Water Exchange between Continental Shelf and the Kuroshio off SouthernJapan: Lagrangian Tracking of a Low-Salinity Water Mass on the Kuroshio NORIHISA IMASATO AND BO QIUGeophysical Institute, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan(Manuscript received 28 October 1985, in final form 9 January 1987)ABSTRACT Low-salinity water masses were occasionally

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Rui Xin Huang

2428 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUME23Real Freshwater Flux as a Natural Boundary Condition for the Salinity Balance and Thermohaline Circulation Forced by Evaporation and Precipitation RuI X1N HUANGDepartment of Physical Oceanography, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts.(Manuscript received 24 March 1992, in final form 20 January 1993

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Gunnar I. Roden and Donna J. Bendiner

308 jOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUME3Bispectra and Cross-Bispectra of Temperature, Salinity, Sound Velocity and Density Fluctuations with Depth off Northeastern Japan1 GUNNAR I. RODV.~ AND DONNA J. BENDI3/ERDepl. of Oceanography, University of Washington, Seattle 98195(Manuscript received 28 July 1972, in revised form 15 January 1973) ABSTRACT Off northeastern Japan

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Andrew M. Moore and Christopher J. C. Reason

ocean general circulation model (OGCM) to different surface heat and freshwaterfluxes is examined. The aim is to determine the most appropriate way to spin up an OGCM prior to couplingit with an atmospheric GCM. Attention is focused on surface boundary conditions for salinity since otherstudies suggest that so-called "mixed" boundary conditions (i.e., a restoring condition on sea surface temperatureand flux condition on sea surface salinity) can yield multiple equilibrium states in ocean models

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