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Lei Cai, Vladimir A. Alexeev, and John E. Walsh

1. Introduction Arctic sea ice has become thinner and “younger” ( Wadhams and Davis 2000 ; Maslanik et al. 2007 ; Serreze and Stroeve 2015 ). Submarine observations have shown a thinning trend of Arctic sea ice since 1958 ( Kwok and Rothrock 2009 ). The observed fraction of multiyear ice in March has decreased from 61% in 1984 to about 34% in 2018 ( NSIDC 2018 ). A reconstruction based on multisource observations estimates a 65% reduction of annual mean sea ice thickness from 1975 to 2012

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F. Krikken and W. Hazeleger

1. Introduction The Arctic sea ice has shown a rapid decrease over the last few decades. An ice-free Arctic summer is already likely within the first half of this century ( Overland and Wang 2013 ). With the sea ice in the Arctic region retreating, the economic activities in the region are expanding and diversifying. More shipping lanes are becoming ice free, and natural resources will become better accessible ( Stephenson et al. 2013 ). These increasing economic activities offer opportunities

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K. J. Harnos, M. L’Heureux, Q. Ding, and Q. Zhang

1. Introduction September Arctic sea ice has decreased by more than 10% per decade since satellite observations began in 1979 ( Stroeve et al. 2012 ; Comiso et al. 2008 ). The historical record of sea ice satellite observations is relatively short ( Serreze and Stroeve 2015 ); however, there is a clear decline in September sea ice extent (SIE) since 1979 with a steepening in the trend since about 1997. There are a number of interdependent factors that contribute to declining SIE and include

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Sohey Nihashi and Kay I. Ohshima

1. Introduction Polynyas are defined as “any non-linear shaped opening enclosed within sea ice, and may contain brash ice and/or may be covered with new ice, nilas, or young ice” ( WMO 1970 ). Polynyas have been classified into two types: “latent heat” polynyas and “sensible heat” polynyas. Most Antarctic coastal polynyas are latent heat polynyas, which are formed by divergent ice motion driven by winds and ocean currents ( Morales Maqueda et al. 2004 ). Antarctic coastal polynyas are very high

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Marius Årthun, Tor Eldevik, and Lars H. Smedsrud

1. Introduction The Arctic Ocean ( Fig. 1 ) is currently losing sea ice in all regions during all seasons ( Serreze et al. 2007 ; Cavalieri and Parkinson 2012 ; Stroeve et al. 2012 ; Onarheim et al. 2018 ). These changes in the Arctic sea ice cover could potentially have both local and remote impacts on the climate system, influencing the surface energy budget ( Bhatt et al. 2014 ; Lee et al. 2017 ), oceanic ( Krishfield et al. 2014 ; Sévellec et al. 2017 ) and atmospheric ( Vihma 2014

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Claude Frankignoul, Nathalie Sennéchael, and Pierre Cauchy

1. Introduction There is increasing evidence that the seasonal to decadal sea ice changes superimposed on the observed decline in Arctic sea ice cover affect the atmospheric circulation. Model studies have suggested that North Atlantic sea ice anomalies influence the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)/Arctic Oscillation (AO) and the North Atlantic storm track ( Magnusdottir et al. 2004 ; Alexander et al. 2004 ; Kvamstø et al. 2004 ), while North Pacific sea ice primarily influences the

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Ian Baxter, Qinghua Ding, Axel Schweiger, Michelle L’Heureux, Stephen Baxter, Tao Wang, Qin Zhang, Kirstin Harnos, Bradley Markle, Daniel Topal, and Jian Lu

1. Introduction Earth has warmed significantly over the past 40 years, and the fastest rate of warming has occurred in and around the Arctic ( Serreze and Barry 2011 ; Bintanja et al. 2011 ; Vaughan et al. 2013 ; Fyfe et al. 2013 ; Cohen et al. 2014 ; Perlwitz et al. 2015 ; Screen and Francis 2016 ). The warming of northern high latitudes at a rate of almost twice the global average, known as Arctic amplification, is associated with sea ice loss, glacier retreat, permafrost degradation

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Dyre O. Dammann, Uma S. Bhatt, Peter L. Langen, Jeremy R. Krieger, and Xiangdong Zhang

1. Introduction The recent dramatic decline of Arctic Ocean sea ice area ( Comiso and Nishio 2008 ), extent ( Stroeve et al. 2008 ), and thickness ( Rothrock et al. 2008 ; Kwok and Rothrock 2009 ) has reinvigorated research on the role of sea ice in climate variability and change. While sea ice conditions are primarily a response to atmospheric (e.g., Deser et al. 2000 ) and oceanic forcing (e.g., Polyakov et al. 2012 ), global climate model (GCM) studies using fixed sea ice concentration

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Dániel Topál, Qinghua Ding, Jonathan Mitchell, Ian Baxter, Mátyás Herein, Tímea Haszpra, Rui Luo, and Qingquan Li

1. Introduction The recent dramatic reduction in summer [June–August (JJA)] Arctic sea ice cover has become an iconic symbol of climate change ( Vaughan et al. 2013 ). The scientific community has reached broad consensus that the observed sea ice decline is mostly attributable to anthropogenic forcing and its associated positive feedbacks, collectively known as Arctic amplification ( Deser et al. 2010 ; Cohen et al. 2014 ; Screen and Simmonds 2010 ; Simmonds 2015 ; Notz and Stroeve 2016

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Lejiang Yu, Shiyuan Zhong, Mingyu Zhou, Bo Sun, and Donald H. Lenschow

1. Introduction Since the 1970s, Antarctic sea ice extent has displayed an overall increasing trend ( Comiso and Nishio 2008 ; Parkinson and Cavalieri 2012 ; Holland 2014 ; Hobbs et al. 2016 ). Unlike the Arctic where sea ice has been on a downward trend consistently across the region, the Antarctic sea ice trends show regional differences, with an upward trend in the Weddell Sea, southern Pacific Ocean, and Ross Sea and downward trend in a portion of the southern Indian Ocean, Amundsen Sea

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