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Sabrina Schnitt, Ulrich Löhnert, and René Preusker

1. Introduction Water vapor is the driving constituent of the global hydrological cycle and of cloud and precipitation formation. It plays a key role in the characterization of the global radiation budget ( Held and Soden 2006 ; Hartmann et al. 2013 ). In the trades, the maximum variability of atmospheric water vapor is found in the lower part of the troposphere within the boundary layer where it influences shallow convection, cloudiness, and circulation processes ( Holloway and Neelin 2009

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Joseph Galewsky and David Rabanus

1. Introduction Global tropospheric water vapor amounts are widely expected to increase in a warming climate, leading to a positive feedback arising from the enhanced greenhouse effect ( Held and Soden 2000 ). The water vapor feedback is the strongest global feedback in general circulation models (GCMs) ( Soden and Held 2006 ), and observations, model results, and theory show a consistent and strong link between increases in surface temperature and increases in water vapor mixing ratio (WVMR

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Yan Wang, Kun Yang, Zhengyang Pan, Jun Qin, Deliang Chen, Changgui Lin, Yingying Chen, Lazhu, Wenjun Tang, Menglei Han, Ning Lu, and Hui Wu

radiosonde data . Int. J. Remote Sens. , 36 , 680 – 690 , doi: 10.1080/01431161.2014.999884 . 10.1080/01431161.2014.999884 Lin , H. , Q. You , Y. Zhang , Y. Jiao , and K. Fraedrich , 2016 : Impact of large-scale circulation on the water vapour balance of the Tibetan Plateau in summer . Int. J. Climatol. , 36 , 4213 – 4221 , doi: 10.1002/joc.4626 10.1002/joc.4626 Liu , J. , Z. Sun , H. Liang , X. Xu , and P. Wu , 2005 : Precipitable water vapor on the Tibetan Plateau

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Jacola Roman, Robert Knuteson, Steve Ackerman, and Hank Revercomb

.1002/2016JD024806 . Schröder , M. , M. Jonas , R. Lindau , J. Schulz , and K. Fennig , 2013 : The CM SAF SSM/I-based total column water vapour climate data record: Methods and evaluation against re-analyses and satellite . Atmos. Meas. Tech. , 6 , 765 – 775 , doi: 10.5194/amt-6-765-2013 . Simmonds , I. , D. Bi , and P. Hope , 1999 : Atmospheric water vapor flux and its association with rainfall over China in summer . J. Climate , 12 , 1353 – 1367 , doi: 10

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Satoru Yokoi

tendency terms of the state variables, which are calculated by parameterization schemes of the forecast models. These terms may help us examine what physical processes are responsible for temporal variation of the state variables, although we should check their accuracy beforehand, which is considered to depend strongly on the quality of the forecast models. A potential utilization of physics tendency terms for understanding MJO dynamics is to examine moist static energy (MSE) and water vapor budgets

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Junhong Wang, Aiguo Dai, and Carl Mears

1. Introduction Water vapor has the largest greenhouse effect on Earth’s climate. However, the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere is controlled by air temperature, unlike other greenhouse gases, which are controlled by emissions ( Myhre et al. 2013 ). Other greenhouse gases, primarily CO 2 , impact the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere through modulating the air temperature. The strong coupling between water vapor content and air temperature provides the basis for a strong positive

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Brian E. J. Rose and M. Cameron Rencurrel

1. Introduction Water vapor is a central player in the climate system. The hydrological cycle is tightly coupled to atmospheric radiation, energetics, and dynamics. A robust understanding of the processes controlling atmospheric water vapor, therefore, must underlie any theory of climate. This paper is concerned with understanding the constraints on the atmospheric water vapor budget under various equilibrium and transient climate change scenarios. We quantify the water vapor content using the

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Gary A. Wick, Paul J. Neiman, F. Martin Ralph, and Thomas M. Hamill

2012 ). Recent research has demonstrated that major winter flooding events both in California and the Pacific Northwest were accompanied by the presence of features termed atmospheric rivers ( Ralph et al. 2006 ; Neiman et al. 2008a ; Neiman et al. 2011 ). Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are long, narrow regions of intense water vapor transport within the lower atmosphere (e.g., Zhu and Newell 1998 ; Ralph et al. 2004 ) that represent a subset corridor within a broader region of generally poleward

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D. Jagadheesha, B. Simon, P-K. Pal, P. C. Joshi, and A. Maheshwari

occultation measurements in COSMIC penetrating the lower troposphere closer to the surface than previous missions like the Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP; Anthes et al. 2008 ; Hajj et al. 2004 ). Radio occultation measurements of vertical profiles of refractivity are used to derive vertical profiles of atmospheric pressure, temperature, and water vapor pressure. Variational assimilation of the radio occultation refractivity or bending angle in numerical weather prediction models is regarded as

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Joseph G. Alfieri, Peter D. Blanken, David Smith, and Jack Morgan

study focuses on the ability of the BREB and EC methods to measure λE , H , and F c over moderately grazed shortgrass steppe grassland. In addition to comparing and reconciling the absolute magnitude of the long-term fluxes measured by each method, we present an analysis of the behavior of the eddy diffusivities for heat, water vapor, and CO 2 . Since grassland ecosystems constitute approximately 24% of the planet’s terrestrial surface ( Franzluebber et al. 2002 ) or between 32% (3.3 × 10 7 km

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