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Daewon W. Byun

suggested to use archived reanalysis data routinely available as a part of numerical weather forecasting for air quality simulations ( Schulze and Turner 1998 ). Starting 1 November 1995, Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment Continental-Scale International Project (GCIP) is archiving the eta model reanalysis of surface and upper air fields at 48-km grid spacing ( Leese 1993 ; Kalnay et al. 1996 ). Based on the success of GCIP, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National

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Lantao Sun, Walter A. Robinson, and Gang Chen

1. Introduction The stratosphere has received increasing attention since it was recognized that the stratosphere does not respond passively to the troposphere and that knowledge of stratospheric initial conditions can contribute to tropospheric weather prediction (e.g., Baldwin et al. 2003 ; Charlton et al. 2003 ; Kuroda 2008 ). Stratospheric variability in the extratropics is associated with dramatic warming events in high latitudes. In some boreal winters and in the unusual austral winter

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William G. Finnegan, Steven K. Chai, and Andrew Detwiler

assistance offered by Mr. Roger Kriedberg. REFERENCES American Meteorological Society , 1998a : Policy statement: Planned and inadvertent weather modification (adopted by the AMS Council 2 October 1998). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc , 79 , 2771 – 2772 . American Meteorological Society , 1998b : Scientific background for the AMS Policy Statement on Planned and Inadvertent Weather Modification, 1998. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc , 79 , 2773 – 2778 . Chiu , C. S. , and J. D. Klett , 1976

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Ralph Shapiro

the reality and nature of a certain sun-weather correlation. J. Atmos. Sci., 34, 382-404.Holzworth, R. H., and F. S. Mozer, 1979: Direct evidence of solar flare modification of stratospheric electric fields. J. Geophys. Res., 84, 363-367.Knight, J. W., and P. A. Sturrock, 1976: Solar activity geo magnetic field and terrestrial weather. Nature, 264, 239-240.Markson, iR., 1971: Considerations regarding solar and lunar modulation of geophysical parameters, atmospheric elec tricity and

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R. Bradley Pierce, Fred M. Reames, Tom H. Zapotocny, Donald R. Johnson, and Bart J. Wolf

designed to determine the impact of coupling an isentropic-coordinatefree atmospheric domain to a sigma-coordinate planetary boundary layer (PBL) on the normal-mode characteristics. The growth ~ate and phase speed spectra of the most unstable normal modes are obtained for ananalytically prescribed zonal flow field. The evolution and vertical structure of the kinetic energy, energy conversions, growth rates, and geopotential fields are investigated. Several modifications have been made to earlier

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R. D. M. Clark

oscillations recorded by the Macelwane microbarographand various weather elements is investigated. It is found that there is a close analogy between these oscillations and atmospheric turbulence. With this analogy as a working hypothesis, a mathematical frameworkis developed which explains the observed relationships.1. IntroductionThe Macelwane electromagnetic microbarograph[SI consists of a large. brass cylinder, with one endcovered by a taut rubber diaphragm. The rate ofcompensation between the exterior

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Cameron R. Homeyer, Joel D. McAuliffe, and Kristopher M. Bedka

the Pueblo, Colorado, WSR-88D radar location (KPUX) is shown by the gray and black labeled circle. d. Idealized simulations To test results from the analysis of multiple observational datasets in this study, we conducted two idealized simulations of explicitly resolved tropopause-penetrating convection with version 3.7.1 of the Advanced Research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) Model ( Skamarock et al. 2008 ). The idealized simulations consisted of modifications to the

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Stephen E. Lang, Wei-Kuo Tao, Xiping Zeng, and Yaping Li

1. Introduction There has been a renewed interest recently in the parameterization and treatment of cloud microphysics in numerical models. Much of it has to do with continuing advances in computing power. Such advances have made it possible to incorporate (via nesting) cloud microphysics packages that were once reserved for cloud-scale models [i.e., cloud-resolving models (CRMs)] into mesoscale or regional-scale models such as the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF; Michalakes et al

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Harold D. Orville and Lansing J. Sloan

fig-urem in the next few pagesand the principal effort of this paper will be a discussionof the figures. There are many implications of successfully simulating rainstorms and. eventually, hailstormson a computer. The applications to local forecasting,weather modification, and cloud physics and dmamicsare many and wilt be discussed later.2. Numerical model The numerical model is two-dimensional (in thex-z plane) and shows the development of clouds abovea ridge. The governing equations are given

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B. N. Hale and P. L. M. Plummer

. Preprlnts Intern. Weather Modification Con-erence, Canberra, Australia, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 51-56.Kikuchi, R., 1969: The translation-rotation paradox in the nucleation theory. J. Statist. Phys., 1, 351-375.Kuhrt, F., 1952: Das Tr6pfchenmodell realer Gase. Z. Phys., 131, 185-204.Lothe, J., K. Nishioka and G. M. Pound, 1971: Comments on the Reiss-Kikuchi theory of homogeneous nucleation. Preprint 71-T 86, Dept. of Materials Research, Stanford University. , and G. M. Pound, 1962

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