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Joseph P. Clark and Steven B. Feldstein

.1175/JCLI-D-13-00642.1 . 10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00642.1 Francis , J. A. , and E. Hunter , 2006 : New insight into the disappearing Arctic sea ice . Eos, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union , 87 , 509 – 511 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2006EO460001 . 10.1029/2006EO460001 Franzke , C. , S. Lee , and S. B. Feldstein , 2004 : Is the North Atlantic Oscillation a breaking wave? J. Atmos. Sci. , 61 , 145 – 160 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(2004)061<0145:ITNAOA>2.0.CO;2 . 10

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Joseph P. Clark and Steven B. Feldstein

of downward infrared radiation in the recent Arctic winter warming trend . J. Climate , 30 , 4937 – 4949 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0180.1 . 10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0180.1 Holton , J. R. , and G. H. Hakim , 2013 : An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology. 5th ed. Academic Press, 532 pp . 10.1016/B978-0-12-384866-6.00001-5 Hurrell , J. W. , Y. Kushnir , G. Ottersen , and M. Visbeck , 2003 : The North Atlantic Oscillation: Climate Significance and Environmental Impact

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Maddalen Iza, Natalia Calvo, and Elisa Manzini

1. Introduction El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the main source of interannual variability in the tropics with relevant teleconnections in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) extratropics ( Horel and Wallace 1981 ). The stratospheric signal during the warm ENSO phase (El Niño) has been extensively documented ( García-Herrera et al. 2006 ; Manzini et al. 2006 ; Fletcher and Kushner 2011 ); during El Niño winters, upward wave activity toward the stratosphere is enhanced through constructive

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Daniel M. Mitchell, Lesley J. Gray, James Anstey, Mark P. Baldwin, and Andrew J. Charlton-Perez

et al. (2011) , similar dates can be achieved by using a simple threshold method in that splits are defined when the vortex aspect ratio is notably elliptical, and displacements when the centroid latitude is notably equatorward, adding confidence that the clustering algorithm is reliable in this case. b. Calculating the NAM The NAM (known as the Arctic oscillation at the surface) is the leading mode of wintertime variability in the Northern Hemisphere circulation ( Thompson and Wallace 1998

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Sarah R. Dewey, James H. Morison, and Jinlun Zhang

.1029/2010JC006803 Thompson , D. W. J. , and J. M. Wallace , 1998 : The Arctic Oscillation signature in the wintertime geopotential height and temperature fields . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 25 , 1297 – 1300 , doi: 10.1029/98GL00950 . 10.1029/98GL00950 Timokhov , L. , and F. Tanis , Eds., 1997 : Environmental Working Group Joint U.S.-Russian Atlas of the Arctic Ocean, version 1. National Snow and Ice Data Center, CD-ROM, doi: 10.7265/N5H12ZX4 . 10.7265/N5H12ZX4 Toole , J. M. , M.-L. Timmermans

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Ian White, Chaim I. Garfinkel, Edwin P. Gerber, Martin Jucker, Valentina Aquila, and Luke D. Oman

.1175/JAS-D-14-0012.1 Hitchcock , P. , and P. H. Haynes , 2016 : Stratospheric control of planetary waves . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 43 , 11 884 – 11 892 , https://doi.org/10.1002/2016GL071372 . 10.1002/2016GL071372 Hitchcock , P. , T. G. Shepherd , and G. L. Manney , 2013 : Statistical characterization of Arctic polar-night jet oscillation events . J. Atmos. Sci. , 26 , 2096 – 2116 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00202.1 . Jucker , M. , 2016 : Are sudden stratospheric

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Koji Yamazaki, Masayo Ogi, Yoshihiro Tachibana, Tetsu Nakamura, and Kazuhiro Oshima

1. Introduction The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), which is a simultaneous seesaw-like strengthening and weakening of the Icelandic low and the Azores high, has a great impact on the Northern Hemisphere climate, particularly on the European climate (e.g., Hurrell et al. 2003 ). The Arctic Oscillation (AO) or the northern annular mode (NAM) ( Thompson and Wallace 2000 , 2001 ) is the most dominant pattern in the variation of the northern extratropical circulation in winter and includes the

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Gina R. Henderson, Daniel J. Leathers, and Brian Hanson

level pressure in the North Atlantic, implying that excess snow over Siberia could lead to higher pressure over the North Atlantic and a subsequent negative North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) phase. Gong et al. (2003) further proposed that a positive feedback of vertical propagation of stationary waves over Siberia could weaken the polar vortex in the stratosphere, resulting in a negative Arctic Oscillation (AO) anomaly in the troposphere. The certainty of this mechanism was limited by vertical

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Paul C. Loikith and Anthony J. Broccoli

(NAM), also referred to as the Arctic Oscillation, is characterized by an annular structure of latitudinally stratified geopotential height anomalies of opposing sign with one band at high northern latitudes and the other over the midlatitudes. When the NAM is in the positive phase, the midlatitude westerlies are anomalously strong, inhibiting the southward penetration of surges of cold air into the continental United States. This corresponds to anomalously warm temperatures in the midlatitudes and

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Alexander R. Stine and Peter Huybers

, doi:10.1029/2007GL030891 . Baldwin , M. , and T. Dunkerton , 1999 : Propagation of the Arctic Oscillation from the stratosphere to the troposphere . J. Geophys. Res. , 104 ( D24 ), 30 937 – 30 946 . Baldwin , M. , X. Cheng , and T. Dunkerton , 1994 : Observed correlations between winter-mean tropospheric and stratospheric circulation anomalies . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 21 , 1141 – 1144 . Baldwin , M. , D. Stephenson , D. Thompson , T. Dunkerton , A. Charlton

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