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Joseph A. Santanello Jr., Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Aaron Kennedy, and Sujay V. Kumar

predictability, primarily in global climate models and over large spatial scales ( Koster et al. 2004 ; van den Hurk et al. 2010 ; Hirschi et al. 2011 ). The initial communication and interaction between the land and atmosphere always occurs on local scales, making the process-level understanding and focus of LoCo research essential in order to fully understand the impact of L–A coupling on dry and wet extremes. As described in S11 , from a LoCo perspective the land–PBL coupling can be broken down into a

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Sha Lu and Hongchao Zuo

climate prediction can be affected because of the changes in the land-surface characteristics ( Fu 2003 ; Yang et al. 2012 ). On the other hand, plastic mulch artificially blocks the energy and mass exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere such as the water vapor transfer between the soil and the air. Therefore, it is obvious that plastic mulch can change the land–atmosphere interaction in comparison with the situation without plastic film covering, which affects the environment and

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Sonali Shukla McDermid, Carlo Montes, Benjamin I. Cook, Michael J. Puma, Nancy Y. Kiang, and Igor Aleinov

moisture–climate feedbacks, and thus land–atmosphere interactions and coupling strength ( Seneviratne et al. 2010 ). Spatial and temporal vegetation changes alter transpiration contributions to the total latent heat flux, thereby impacting soil moisture and regional hydrology to modulate evaporative regimes ( Dirmeyer et al. 2006 ). For example, Alessandri and Navarra (2008) showed that ~12% of global precipitation variability is forced by changes in vegetation features, which can amplify or detract

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Joshua K. Roundy and Joseph A. Santanello

1. Introduction In the absence of strong advective influences, land–atmosphere (LA) coupling ( Seneviratne et al. 2010 ) drives the diurnal cycle of clouds and precipitation that can greatly impact the water cycle. As a result, there has been a great deal of work to quantify LA interactions and feedbacks through observations and prediction models. Much of this work has been carried out by the Global Energy and Water Exchanges project (GEWEX) Global Land/Atmosphere System Study (GLASS) local

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Devdutta S. Niyogi, Yongkang Xue, and Sethu Raman

, semiarid tropical regime there is limited interaction between the vegetation and the bare ground, the surface components conversely may be individually linked with the atmosphere and not as an “effective surface.” Hence the single effective or area-averaged vegetation and bare ground flux representation may have additional limitations in the semiarid tropical conditions. For the tropical regimes, it consequently may be necessary to employ detailed land surface schemes that explicitly calculate the bare

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Eric F. Wood and Venkataraman Lakshmi

-surface characteristics on the large-scale fluxes of water andenergy in the land-atmosphere system have become a central focus of many of the climatology research experiments. The acquisition of high-resolution land-surface data through remote sensing and intensive landclimatology field experiments (like HAPEX and FIFE ) has provided data to investigate the interactions betweenmicroscale land-atmosphere interactions and macroscale models. One essential research question is how toaccount for the small

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Joseph A. Santanello Jr., Sujay V. Kumar, Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Ken Harrison, and Shujia Zhou

1. Introduction Despite evidence of the importance of land–atmosphere (LA) interactions in weather and climate prediction (e.g., Betts 2009 ; Seneviratne et al. 2010 ), the systematic impact of land surface parameterizations on coupled mesoscale modeling has proven difficult to quantify in a robust manner. The role of the land in modulating water and energy cycling has been well-documented in terms of LA coupling strength and the support of hydrological anomalies and extremes such as flood

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Enrique R. Vivoni, Hugo A. Gutiérrez-Jurado, Carlos A. Aragón, Luis A. Méndez-Barroso, Alex J. Rinehart, Robert L. Wyckoff, Julio C. Rodríguez, Christopher J. Watts, John D. Bolten, Venkataraman Lakshmi, and Thomas J. Jackson

). Despite its regional impact, relatively little is currently known about the potential interactions between the monsoon system and land surface properties (e.g., topography, soil moisture, vegetation) that may play a role in initiating and sustaining moist convection. The land and atmosphere interaction may be particularly important for topographically complex areas in the monsoon region. For example, Gochis et al. (2004) showed important terrain controls on the distribution of precipitation using

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Alexis Berg, Benjamin R. Lintner, Kirsten Findell, Sonia I. Seneviratne, Bart van den Hurk, Agnès Ducharne, Frédérique Chéruy, Stefan Hagemann, David M. Lawrence, Sergey Malyshev, Arndt Meier, and Pierre Gentine

surface heating and associated temperatures during rainy conditions. Second, local land–atmosphere interactions, which are expected to play a stronger role in summer ( Entekhabi et al. 1992 ; Koster et al. 2004 ; Seneviratne et al. 2010 ), may induce such relationships on seasonal scales through the effect of precipitation on soil moisture and attendant surface heat fluxes. Lower rainfall, for instance, is associated with reduced soil moisture and latent heat flux, and thus increased sensible

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Maik Renner, Axel Kleidon, Martyn Clark, Bart Nijssen, Marvin Heidkamp, Martin Best, and Gab Abramowitz

striking finding of Best et al. (2015) was that simple linear regression models with solar radiation as a predictor variable outcompeted all land surface models when evaluated with standard statistical metrics. The simple linear response seen in observations can be regarded as a signature of complex land–atmosphere interactions, which are known to simplify the response of turbulent fluxes at certain scales ( Jarvis and McNaughton 1986 ; De Bruin and Holtslag 1982 ). Hence, these land surface models

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