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Carlos F. M. Raupp and Pedro L. Silva Dias

simulated when the coarse-resolution National Centers for Environment Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis or the Center for Ocean–Land–Atmosphere Studies (COLA) AGCM integrations are downscaled to take into account the effects of the diurnal cycle of convection over some regions of the continent. This indicates that there might be a certain mechanism of interaction between the diurnal cycle of tropical convection over continental areas and the intraseasonal variability of the atmospheric circulation. Therefore

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L. V. Berkner and L. C. Marshall

in a later publication. Thereactions arising from the photodissociation or excitation of CU, appear to provide no net production ofoxygen in the atmosphere. Therefore, it is initially assumed that the content of CO2 in the prinitive atmosphere is small (comparable to the present relativecontent).Then in the spectral region 1000-1930 A, the principal reaction in absence of oxygen will be a series ofphotochemical interactions with water vapor, which,o210jo-IAT 10 P.A.L.C.)101UxllO~i022400AT tO P

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Jonathan H. Jiang, Hui Su, Chengxing Zhai, T. Janice Shen, Tongwen Wu, Jie Zhang, Jason N. S. Cole, Knut von Salzen, Leo J. Donner, Charles Seman, Anthony Del Genio, Larissa S. Nazarenko, Jean-Louis Dufresne, Masahiro Watanabe, Cyril Morcrette, Tsuyoshi Koshiro, Hideaki Kawai, Andrew Gettelman, Luis Millán, William G. Read, Nathaniel J. Livesey, Yasko Kasai, and Masato Shiotani

, transport of energy by the atmosphere, and the energy storage in the upper layers of the ocean or land. Thus, atmospheric diurnal cycles involve many processes and feedback mechanisms. Studies of diurnal cycle of rainfall date back to as early as the 1920s (e.g., Ray 1928 ) and have been growing since then (e.g., Kraus 1963 ; Wallace 1975 ; McGarry and Reed 1978 ; Reed and Jaffe 1981 ; Albright et al. 1981 , 1985 ; Houze and Betts 1981 ; Salby et al. 1991 ; Hendon and Woodberry 1993 ; Sui et

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Yongsheng Chen and M. K. Yau

2002b ). Willoughby (1990) showed that the weakening of Atlantic hurricanes just before landfall often results from the formation of a concentric eyewall and the eyewall replacement process. From extensive case studies of 22 concentric eyewall hurricanes, Nong (2000) argued that interactions between a hurricane and its upper-level synoptic environment is neither sufficient, nor necessary for the eyewall replacement process. It is possible that outer spiral rainbands induced by land–sea contrast

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Kingtse C. Mo, James Pfaendtner, and Eugenia Kalnay

equilibrium in the atmosphere and blocking. J. Atmos. Sci., 36, 1205-1216.Collucci, S. J., A. Z. Loesch and L. F. Bosart, 1981: Spectral evolution of a blocking episode and comparison with wave interaction theory. J. Atmos. Sci., 38, 2092-2111.Dole, R. M., and N. M. Gordon, 1983: Persistent anomalies of the extratropical Northern Hemisphere wintertime circulation: Geographical distribution and regional persistence characteris tics. Mon. Wea. Rev., 111, 1567-1587.Egger, J, 1978: Dynamics of

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Marvin A. Geller, Tiehan Zhou, and Peter T. Love

attributed to the rather crude specifications of GW sources in models. In particular, Geller et al. (2013) noted that primary maximum absolute momentum fluxes derived from satellite observations occur at winter high latitudes while secondary maxima are located at about 20° latitude over the summer tropical continents, rather than at the latitudes of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), where latent heating of the atmosphere is maximum. It is clear that wind filtering must be playing a large role

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Byung-Ju Sohn and Eric A. Smith

oftemperature. These observational findings imply animportant role of cloud on the general circulation atclimate time scales. Since the general circulation modifies the cloud distributions, any nonlinear feedbackbetween these two processes is an important elementin modulating global climate tendencies. The net surface-atmosphere forcing analysis showsthat the western Pacific-North Africa energy transportdipole is mainly maintained by land-ocean contrastsin low latitudes associated with SW processes but

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David M. Straus

2380 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VOL. 46, No. 15Baroclinic Instability and Wave-Wave Interactions in Quasi-geostrophic Error Growth DAVID M. STRAUSCenter for Ocean.Land-Atmosphere Interactions, Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland, College Par!~ Maryland(Manuscript received 25 January 1988, in final form 14 February 1989)ABSTRACT A two-level quasi

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Syukuro Manabe, Douglas G. Hahn, and J. Leith Holloway Jr.

. These featuresof the energetics in the model tropics are in qualitativeagreement with those of the actual tropics, as investigated by Nitta (1970).c. Seasonal variation The seasonal variations of eddy conversion and eddypressure interaction in the model atmosphere are givenin Fig. 7.4; it shows that the zonal mean rate of eddyconversion is very large around 15N in July. In January,it is maximum slightl~ to the south of the equator. Ingeneral, the zone of maximum eddy conversion shifts72

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Quanhua Liu and Fuzhong Weng

scattering of polarized light in planetary atmospheres. Part I. The doubling method. J. Atmos. Sci. , 28 , 120 – 125 . Heidinger , A. K. , C. O’Dell , R. Bennartz , and T. Greenwald , 2006 : The successive-order-of-interaction radiative transfer model. Part I: Model development. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. , 45 , 1388 – 1402 . Hollinger , J. P. , 1971 : Passive microwave measurements of sea surface roughness. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. , GE-9 , 3 . 165 – 169 . Hovenier , J

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