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Joshua P. Hacker and Dorita Rostkier-Edelstein

1. Introduction Accurate planetary boundary layer (PBL) analyses and very short range forecasts (nowcasts) can help with several practical forecasting and secondary-model applications. Convective weather nowcasting is perhaps the critical example, because convective initiation and forecasted precipitation has been shown to be sensitive to PBL structure ( Crook 1996 ; McCaul and Cohen 2002 ; Martin and Xue 2006 ). Air-quality analysis and plume dispersion studies can also benefit from improved

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Jan Erik Haugen and Bennert Machenhauer

2618 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW VOLUME 121A Spectral Limited-Area Model Formulation with Time-dependent Boundary Conditions Applied to the Shallow-Water Equations JAN ERIK HAUGENThe Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo, Norway BENNERT MACHENHAUERMax-Planck-lnstitut fiir Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany(Manuscript received 6 October 1992, in final form 10 March

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John E. Kutzbach and Peter J. Guetter

1726 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VOL. 45,~O. lOThe Influence of Changing Orbital Parameters and Surface Boundary Conditions on Climate Simulations for the Past 18 000 Years JOHN E. KUTZBACH AND PETER J. GUETI'ERCenter for Climatic Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison~ W~iscor~!.n, $$706(Manuscript received 16 September 1985, in final form 20 February 1986) General circulation

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Yevgenii Rastigejev and Sergey A. Suslov

range of possible spray concentration values with the temperatures of spray and surrounding air determined by a complex interaction of several physical mechanisms, which include turbulent transport, heat exchange, and phase transition. This article is organized as follows. The mathematical model of the spray-laden marine atmospheric boundary layer is formulated in section 2 . The boundary conditions are described in section 3 . The nondimensional equations that are needed for the analysis of the

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A. Routray, S. C. Kar, P. Mali, and K. Sowjanya

for the WRF Model and the assessment of its impact for the Indian region. In a regional assimilation and modeling system, initial and lateral boundary conditions (IBCs) are either prescribed from global numerical weather prediction models, other limited-area models, or reanalysis datasets with coarse resolution. Accuracy of the lateral boundary conditions is important because the atmospheric waves and disturbances generated at the boundary can rapidly propagate throughout the domain and affect the

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X. Zou and Y-H. Kuo

DECEMBER 1996 ZOU AND KUO 2859Rainfall Assimilation through an Optimal Control of Initial and Boundary Conditions in a Limited-Area Mesoscale Model 'X. Zou AND Y.-H. KUOMPG/MMM/NCAR, Boulder, Colorado(Manuscript received 19 December 1995, in final form 14 June 1996)ABSTRACT To assess the impact of rainfall observations on short-range forecasts of

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Paul Nutter, David Stensrud, and Ming Xue

little or no error growth resulting from perturbed initial conditions ( Paegle et al. 1997 , and references therein). Attempts to explain these seemingly optimistic results have focused either on enhanced local forcing (e.g., topography or surface inhomogeneities) or on the errors introduced by the use of “one-way” lateral boundary conditions (LBCs). The latter effect is favored in the literature and is the subject of the current work. While previous studies have considered LBC constraints on error

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H. Bjornsson, L. A. Mysak, and G. A. Schmidt

( Marotzke et al. 1988 ; Wright and Stocker 1991 ; Wright and Stocker 1992 ; Stocker and Wright 1991 ; Mysak et al. 1993 ; Sakai and Peltier 1995 ; Schmidt and Mysak 1996a ) [see Weaver and Hughes (1992) for a review]. In the absence of an interactive atmospheric component in these models, boundary conditions at the surface of the ocean have to be imposed. Generally, the so-called mixed boundary conditions are used. These consist of a restoring condition on temperature ( Haney 1971 ) and a (fixed

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Jianjun Liu, Zhanqing Li, and Maureen Cribb

decreased from the surface to high altitudes and that most aerosol particles were located in the boundary layer over the North Atlantic region. Under more stable atmospheric conditions, CBHs are generally lower than those under less stable conditions (e.g., Fig. 5a ) and thus can mix and interact more with aerosols, resulting in a larger FIE ( Jones et al. 2009 ; Costantino and Bréon 2013 ). This is confirmed by the relationship between DER and under constant LWP conditions for samples with low and

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Lee R. Hoxit

1974 L E E R. H O X I T 1003Planetary Boundary Layer Winds in Baroclinic Conditions LEE 1~. HOXIT~,2 Dept. of Atmosp.heric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins 80521 (Manuscript received 11 November 1973, in revised form 29 January 1974) ABSTRACT Systematic stratifications and analyses of low-level radiosonde data are performed for

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