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Catherine Gautier and Martin Landsfeld

effects; that is, if it were not for the clouds, the surface solar radiation flux would have an even larger seasonal cycle. 7. Surface solar flux cloud forcing Another way of quantifying cloud radiative effects is to investigate the difference in surface solar flux between cloudy and clear conditions. This approach was introduced by Charlock and Ramanathan (1985) . Since clear and cloudy conditions do not exist at the same time, one has to either rely on models to derive the clear conditions or to

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Jen-Ping Chen, I-Jen Chen, and I-Chun Tsai

the lower atmosphere and decreased land–sea thermal contrast. However, the spatial patterns of surface temperature and precipitation changes do not always match those of aerosol loading ( Nigam and Bollasina 2010 ). Lee et al. (2014) reported that precipitation may increase downwind of the aerosol source region, and that positive changes in solar radiation may be seen over areas with substantial aerosol forcing, which they attributed to decreases in cloud fraction. Inconsistencies in the climate

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Daniel T. McCoy, Dennis L. Hartmann, and Daniel P. Grosvenor

the inability of radar to determine thermodynamic phase in the mixed-phase cloud and thus the necessity of assuming phase attribution in the mixed-phase temperature range ( Huang et al. 2012 ). To reduce biases in the vertically resolved liquid water content introduced by these limitations, we force the integrated liquid water path to be consistent with the passive microwave liquid water path in the UWISC dataset, which is well attuned to the detection of liquid ( O’Dell et al. 2008 ). This is

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Benjamin Laken, Enric Pallé, and Hiroko Miyahara

-based solar–climate link is particularly intriguing, as such a connection would have the potential to amplify the relatively small solar impetus into a climatologically significant effect. This is achieved as the radiative forcing effects of clouds are large enough, that even a small change in cloud amount may exert an influential radiative forcing ( Slingo 1990 ); for example, an increase of global cloud cover by 1% would alter earth’s radiative budget by approximately −0.13 W m −2 ( Ramanathan et al

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B. Sechrist, J. A. Coakley Jr., and W. R. Tahnk

1. Introduction Ship tracks have been used to determine the response of marine stratocumulus to increases in aerosol particle concentrations produced by underlying ships. They have revealed some of the complex interactions that occur as part of the aerosol indirect radiative forcing of the climate. Additional particles lead to clouds with larger droplet number concentrations and smaller droplets. The clouds have larger optical depths and albedos ( Twomey 1974 ; Coakley et al. 1987 ). Albrecht

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Roger Davies

2820 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VOL. 42, No. 24Response of Cloud Supersaturation to Radiative Forcing ROGER DAVIESDepartment of Geosciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907(Manuscript received 13 March 1985, in final form 8 August 1985)ABSTRACT The diffusional growth or evaporation of cloud droplets due to net emission or absorption of radiation isstudied. Time dependent solutions for droplet temperatures

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Sungsu Park, Michael A. Alexander, and Clara Deser

Alexander and Deser (1995) , occurs over much of the North Pacific Ocean ( Alexander et al. 1999 ), but its timing and strength depends on the month the anomaly was created and the annual cycle of MLD at that location. The goal of our study is to understand how cloud radiative feedback, remote ENSO forcing, and oceanic entrainment contribute to the persistence of monthly SST anomalies in the North Pacific Ocean. To this end, we employ a stochastically forced entraining ocean mixed layer model used by

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Mark Aaron Chan and Josefino C. Comiso

Arctic cloud and radiation characteristics . J. Climate , 9 , 1731 – 1764 . Dong , X. , G. G. Mace , P. Minnis , and D. F. Young , 2001 : Arctic stratus cloud properties and their effect on the surface radiation budget: Selected case from FIRE ACE . J. Geophys. Res. , 106 ( D14 ), 15 297 – 15 312 . Dong , X. , B. Xi , K. Crosby , C. N. Long , R. S. Stone , and M. D. Shupe , 2010 : A 10 year climatology of Arctic cloud fraction and radiative forcing at Barrow

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D. E. Johnson, W-K. Tao, and J. Simpson

1. Introduction Problems commonly confronted by general circulation models (GCMs) involve not only determining how cloud systems affect the large-scale fields but also how the evolution, maintenance, dissipation, and structure of cloud systems relate to large-scale forcings, microphysics, radiative transfer, boundary layer turbulence, and surface fluxes. In Johnson et al. (2002 , hereafter Part I ), we mentioned that the cloud-resolving model (CRM) can be used to quantify the cumulative large

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E. Baughman, A. Gnanadesikan, A. Degaetano, and A. Adcroft

by the Hadley Centre Global Environment Model version 2 (HadGEM2) with cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) increased from around 100 to 375 cm −3 in the North Pacific, South Pacific, and South Atlantic, separately and together. Jones et al. (2009) used an A1B forcing trajectory ( Houghton et al. 2001 ) to simulate anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. They found that increasing CCN produced a significant decrease in precipitation in South America. Rasch et al. (2009) examined the climate

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