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Godelieve Deblonde

1. Introduction Recently, a number of numerical weather prediction (NWP) centers have studied and/or implemented the assimilation of Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) retrieved total precipitable water (TPW) vapor over the open oceans (e.g., Phalippou 1996 ; Deblonde 1999a ; Gérard and Saunders 1999 ). At the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), TPW, near-surface oceanic wind speed (SWS), and cloud liquid water (CLW

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D. M. O’Brien, Igor Polonsky, Philip Stephens, and Thomas E. Taylor

task and has been avoided for the present study by artificially forcing the relative speeds and Doppler shifts to zero. b. Conditioning the spectra The model presented in section 3 assumes that the only spectral features are those caused by absorption by CO 2 and H 2 O in the terrestrial atmosphere. In practice, the spectra will contain solar lines and any spectral features inherited from clouds, aerosols, and the surface. Because the latter are likely to vary slowly compared with the gas

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E. M. Weinstock, J. B. Smith, D. Sayres, J. V. Pittman, N. Allen, and J. G. Anderson

content (6.7 × 10 12 mol cm −3 ) provides about 1.5 W m −2 of infrared heating, and this heating scales directly with ice water content. In fact, McFarquhar et al. (2000) report cloud radiative forcing calculations using microphysical and lidar data during the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment averaging 1.58 W m −2 . Measurements of the potentially small ice water content of thin cirrus need to be accurate and precise enough to adequately constrain models calculating the radiative properties

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Shashi K. Gupta, David P. Kratz, Anne C. Wilber, and L. Cathy Nguyen

.1029/90JD01450 Gautier, C. , and Landsfeld M. , 1997 : Surface solar radiation flux and cloud radiative forcing for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP): A satellite, surface observations, and radiative transfer model study. J. Atmos. Sci , 54 , 1289 – 1307 . 10.1175/1520-0469(1997)054<1289:SSRFAC>2.0.CO;2 Gupta, S. K. , 1989 : A parameterization for longwave surface radiation from sun-synchronous satellite data. J. Climate , 2 , 305 – 320 . 10

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Douglas Lowenthal, A. Gannet Hallar, Ian McCubbin, Robert David, Randolph Borys, Peter Blossey, Andreas Muhlbauer, Zhiming Kuang, and Mary Moore

with snowfall under pre- and postfrontal conditions, with and without convection, and in large-scale stratiform cloud systems ( Rauber et al. 1986b ). Given sufficient moisture, orographic forcing typically produces a cap cloud at SPL, which may be embedded, and which produces persistent snowfall. During precipitation events, the flow is generally from the west or northwest. Cloud and precipitation under southwest flow are suppressed by the Flat Tops Range (maximum elevation: 3768 m MSL) ( Fig. 1

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Zhanqing Li and Alexander Trishchenko

identification and its effect on cloud radiative forcing in the Arctic. J. Geophys. Res., 96, 9175–9188. 10.1029/91JD00529 ——, and ——, 1992: Narrowband to broadband conversion with spatially autocorrelated reflectance measurements. J. Appl. Meteor., 31, 653–670. Masuda, K., H. G. Leighton, and Z. Li, 1995: A new parameterization for the determination of solar flux absorbed at the surface from satellite measurements. J. Climate, 8, 1615–1629. Minnis, P., and E. F. Harrison, 1984: Diurnal

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Daniela Meloni, Claudia Di Biagio, Alcide di Sarra, Francesco Monteleone, Giandomenico Pace, and Damiano Massimiliano Sferlazzo

1. Introduction Longwave radiation (LW) is a key component of the energy balance of the earth–atmosphere system and is affected by greenhouse gases and clouds, by far the most important parameters in climate change studies. Estimates of LW irradiances are generally based on parameterizations, both for cloud-free and all-sky conditions ( Allan et al. 1999 ; Ruckstuhl et al. 2007 ; Dupont et al. 2008 , among others), or radiative transfer calculations, while measurements are not as conventional

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Robert C. Jackson, Greg M. McFarquhar, Jeff Stith, Matthew Beals, Raymond A. Shaw, Jorgen Jensen, Jacob Fugal, and Alexei Korolev

complex feedback involving the sea ice, clouds, aerosols, and the atmosphere ( Curry et al. 1993 ; Curry 1995 ), where rapid changes in temperature and sea ice coverage attributable to climate change are occurring ( Edenhofer et al. 2014 ). The persistence of arctic mixed-phase clouds is driven by a balance between cloud-top radiative cooling, ice sedimentation rates, latent heating, and synoptic scale and surface forcing ( Harrington et al. 1999 ; Harrington and Olsson 2001 ; Avramov and

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Xiao-yong Zhuge, Fan Yu, and Ye Wang

1. Introduction The visible (VIS; 0.55 ~ 0.9 μ m) data directly relate to the characteristics of cloud optical thickness ( Nakajima and King 1990 ; Platnick et al. 2001 ; King et al. 2004 ). Because of its high precision, VIS data have an inherent advantage for the retrieval of cloud microphysical and optical properties ( Li et al. 2005 ; Yu et al. 1997 ; Yu and Liu 1998 ; Zhang et al. 2011 ) and precipitation ( Hsu et al. 1999 ; Wang et al. 2008 ; Zhuge and Yu 2009 ). It is well known

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Gregory R. Foltz, Amato T. Evan, H. Paul Freitag, Sonya Brown, and Michael J. McPhaden

reasonable choices of the rainfall criterion, since at most locations there is a well-defined start to the rainy season. The buoy SWR anomalies in each rain-free segment are the result of forcing from several sources: 1) anomalies of clouds, water vapor, and aerosols suspended in the atmosphere; 2) dust buildup on the buoy SWR sensor; and 3) biases in the ISCCP-FD SWR climatology caused, for example, by changes in satellite coverage and limited measurements of the vertical profiles of suspended aerosols

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