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maximum radiation. which is expressed as follon s,where Tis the absolute temperature a i d i,,,,,,. the wave lengthof maximum intensity of radiation expressed in microns :A,,, T= constant.5 February 19. 1903, wa5 the most extraordinary day ah regar& absenceof water vapor in the atinnqphere which has ever h e n noted here. Thegreat water-vapor hands Q $ in the infra-red spectriun were nearlyfilled up, and the long wave length side of the band A1 presented an almo+tunrecpgizable appearance.6The wave

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Harshvardhan and David A. Randall

1832 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW VOLUME 113Comments on "The Parameterization of Radiation for Numerical Weather Prediction and Climate Models" HARSHVARDHAN* AND DAVID A. RANDALL Laboratory for ~ltmospheres, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 5 November 1984 and 9 February 1985 In a recent review article, Stephens (1984) discussesthe various aspects of radiation parameterization

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Frédéric Chevallier

, 322 , 665 – 672 . Chevallier , F. , 1994 : Une nouvelle approche, par réseau de neurones, de la modélisation du transfert radiatif à des fins climatiques. Rep. from DEA “Méthodes Physiques en Télédétection,” University of Paris, 45 pp . Chevallier , F. , and J-F. Mahfouf , 2001 : Evaluation of the Jacobians of infrared radiation models for variational data assimilation. J. Appl. Meteor. , 40 , 1445 – 1461 . Chevallier , F. , F. Chéruy , N. A. Scott , and A. Chédin , 1998

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R. L. Gall and B. M. Herman

humidity occurring aloft in the lower layers of the atmosphere produce changesof several degrees in the nocturnal minimum temperature at screen height.1. Introduction A radiative-conductive thermal equilibrium isoften reached at the surface a few hours after sunseton clear nights with calm winds and relatively lowground moisture and air humidity. This equilibriumresults as the surface cools after sunset by emissionof infrared radiation. As the surface temperaturedrops, this emission diminishes until

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reduced to mean solar distance of acts strongly to deplete the incoming radiation,partlythrough absorption of red and infra-red rays, partly t,he earth, is 1.35.a* Kimball, Herbert H. 1927. Measurements of,sola⟨ radiation intensity and de- te.rminations of itu depletion by the atmosphere. wlth bibliography of pyrheliometric 1 TEgliche MMehe Und p4lkulare Schwankungen der Sonnenstrahlung in Davos. (32 pp.. 8 table#; 6 Qh) LExpandon Scientiflque Francaise. Paris, 1928. observations. Monthly Weather

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protection. Radiant heat-ing by infrared has been proposed as a protective measurelor use i n the case of advection frost [3].The terms radiation and advect8ion frost are sorne-what arbitrary. Cool, clear, dry air, advected into aregion, set's the stage for unobstructed radiation of heatfrom soil and plant. R a d i h v e processes contribute tothe heat exchange during an advection frost. Consider-able loss ol heat is due to the conduction of energy intothe cold air and it8s subsequent t,ransport.It' is

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From RemoteRadiation Measurements," Journal of the Optical Society ofAmerica, Vol. 49, No. 10, Oct. 1959, pp. 1004-1007.Rodgers, C. D., "SatelMe Infrared Radiometer; A Discussion ofInversion Methods," Memorandum No. 66.13, Clarendon Lab-oratory, University of Oxford, England, Sept. 1966, 25 pp.Smith, R. L., "Statistical Estimation of the At,mosphere's Geo-potential Height Distribution From Satellite Radiation Measure-ments," ESSA Technical Report NESC 48, U.S. Departmentof Commerce, Washington, D

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Kuo-Nan Liou

channels (e.g., see Coakley andBretherton, 1982). These techniques normally assumethat clouds in the infrared are blackbodies, however. In a recent paper by Barton (1983), data from twonarrow-band channels in the H20-CO2 2.7 #m bandon board Nimbus 5 were analyzed to yield the highcloud cover and height information. The advantage tousing this absorption band is that because of strongabsorption no radiation reflected by the surface or lowand middle clouds is detected by the radiometer, exceptclouds

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air masses. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Meteorological Course. Professional Notes No. 4, Cambridge, Mass., 1930.(31) Rimball, H. H., Variations in the total and luminous solar radiation with geographical position in the United States. Mo. m7ea. Rev., vol. 47, p. 7G9, 1919. (32) Kimball, H. H., Amount of solar radiation that reaches the surface of the earth on the land and on the sea, and methods by which it is measured. Mo. Wea. Rev., vol. 56, pp. 303-399, 1925.SOLAR RADIATION AS A

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Zhian Sun and Lawrie Rikus

satellite. Provided the offline code for the satellite infrared band and the model radiation code have comparable accuracy, disagreement between satellite and model-derived brightness temperature can then realistically be attributed to errors in the model's thermodynamic and cloud fields. Over 10 yr of operation of the cloud validation scheme, a substantial amount of model data have been produced. Analysis of these results has shown that although the comparison of the model's cloud fields with

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