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Camille Garnaud, Stéphane Bélair, Marco L. Carrera, Heather McNairn, and Anna Pacheco

1. Introduction Soil moisture is an essential variable within the Earth system. It regulates the evapotranspiration rate from the ground and the biosphere, thus affecting the energy and water balance at the surface–atmosphere interface. Its effect on the partitioning of net radiation into sensible and latent heat has an impact on boundary layer development. Thus, in some regions, precipitation can be strongly constrained by evapotranspiration and thus soil moisture ( Eltahir 1998 ; Betts and

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Alexis Berg, Benjamin Lintner, Kirsten Findell, and Alessandra Giannini

1. Introduction The two-way interactions between soil moisture and the overlying atmosphere represent important controls on near-surface climate over land. Driven by variability in precipitation and atmospheric evaporative demand, soil moisture variations in turn modulate fluxes of water and heat at the surface. Through this control on water and energy fluxes, soil moisture variations can feed back onto near-surface surface climate (e.g., temperature and humidity); these impacts can extend to

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Katja Friedrich, David E. Kingsmill, Cyrille Flamant, Hanne V. Murphey, and Roger M. Wakimoto

al. 1995 ; Fovell 2005 ), and drylines (e.g., Fujita 1970 ; Koch and McCarthy 1982 ; Schaefer 1986 ; Hane et al. 1997 ; Murphey et al. 2006 ) have received the largest amount of attention in terms of documenting their kinematic and moisture characteristics for convective weather forecasting applications. Precipitating cold fronts, particularly those associated with narrow cold frontal rainbands, have been examined in this context as well (e.g., James and Browning 1979 ; Hobbs and Persson

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Youlong Xia, Trent W. Ford, Yihua Wu, Steven M. Quiring, and Michael B. Ek

1. Introduction In situ soil moisture is valuable for validating soil moisture products such as offline land surface models ( Robock et al. 2003 ; Fan et al. 2006 ; Liu et al. 2011 ; Meng et al. 2012 ; Xia et al. 2014 ) as well as coupled numerical weather and climate prediction models ( de Goncalves 2006 ; De Rosnay et al. 2009 ; Fan et al. 2011 ; Su et al. 2013 ). It also has been widely used for validating remote sensing–based soil moisture products ( Zribi et al. 2008 ; Gruhier et

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Masahiro Sugiyama

al. 2008 ). Deep convection, on the other hand, affects the tropospheric humidity budget in various ways. Such an interaction leads to a new kind of dynamical mode called the moisture mode (defined below). Theoretical papers on the moisture mode include Yu and Neelin (1994) , Sobel et al. (2001) , Fuchs and Raymond (2002 , 2005 , 2007) , and Bony and Emanuel (2005) , whereas Sobel and Bretherton (2003) and Grabowski and Moncrieff (2004) , for example, performed modeling studies. The

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Nicholas R. Nalli, Christopher D. Barnet, Tony Reale, Quanhua Liu, Vernon R. Morris, J. Ryan Spackman, Everette Joseph, Changyi Tan, Bomin Sun, Frank Tilley, L. Ruby Leung, and Daniel Wolfe

launched in the same orbit over the next two decades beginning in 2017. These instruments are designed to retrieve atmospheric vertical temperature and moisture profiles under nonprecipitating conditions with the best possible vertical resolution allowed by passive measurements. The current operational retrieval algorithm for SNPP is the NOAA Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System (NUCAPS) developed at NOAA. 1 The NUCAPS retrieval is based upon the heritage AIRS/Advanced Microwave Sounding

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Binghao Jia, Jianguo Liu, Zhenghui Xie, and Chunxiang Shi

1. Introduction Soil moisture is a key variable for numerical weather prediction and climate forecasting because it controls the partitioning of energy into latent and sensible heat fluxes at the soil–atmosphere surface ( Wang et al. 2011 ; Y. Liu et al. 2016 ). Many applications require large-scale soil moisture information, to be used as realistic initial states for the soil moisture variables, from weather forecasts and seasonal climate predictions to models of plant growth and carbon

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Shu-Wen Zhang, Xubin Zeng, Weidong Zhang, and Michael Barlage

1. Motivation The importance of a realistic soil moisture initialization in land–atmosphere coupled global models for seasonal-to-interannual forecasts is widely recognized (e.g., Koster et al. 2004 ). However, at present, no operational networks of ground-based instruments are available at regional or global scales to provide soil moisture observations for land surface initialization. Satellite microwave sensors can provide global near-surface soil moisture estimates, but the measurement is

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Steven C. Chan and Vasubandhu Misra

), and the 1930s Great Plains Dust Bowl ( Seager et al. 2008 ). Precipitation anomalies in the Mississippi basin and the Great Plains are mainly controlled by both atmospheric moisture transport and local evaporation ( Trenberth and Guillemot 1996 ; Dirmeyer and Brubaker 1999 ; Brubaker et al. 2001 ; Ruiz-Barradas and Nigam 2005 , 2006 ). Despite historical interests, the Mississippi River basin and the Great Plains are not the wettest regions of the United States during the boreal summer season

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Hanan N. Karam and Rafael L. Bras

1. Background and motivation The hydrologic cycle of the Amazon Basin has global importance. It sustains the largest tropical rain forest worldwide, which provides habitat to a huge diversity of species and significantly impacts the balance of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Furthermore, it influences hydrometeorological dynamics in neighboring and remote areas. At the continental scale, the Amazon Basin supplies moisture to the La Plata watershed by means of a low-level jet east of the Andes

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