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Yong Chen, Yong Han, Paul van Delst, and Fuzhong Weng

brightness temperatures (BT) by up to 20 K in the sun-glint area and overestimate by about 2 K in nonsun-glint areas. At infrared wavelengths, the waves caused by ocean roughness can be simulated through small specular facets whose slopes are distributed according to the Cox and Munk (1954) function. The emission and reflection from each individual facet can be simulated by geometrical optics, and the total emission and reflection from all the facets within a satellite field of view can be

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Vanessa Caicedo, Ruben Delgado, Ricardo Sakai, Travis Knepp, David Williams, Kevin Cavender, Barry Lefer, and James Szykman

, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012JD018143 . Sivaraman , C. , S. McFarlane , E. Chapman , M. Jensen , T. Toto , S. Liu , and M. Fischer , 2013 : Planetary boundary layer (PBL) height value added product (VAP): Radiosonde retrievals. U.S. Department of Energy Rep. DOE/SC-ARM-TR-132, 36 pp. , https://www.arm.gov/publications/tech_reports/doe-sc-arm-tr-132.pdf . Smith , R. B. , S. T. Skubis , J. D. Doyle , A. Broad , C. Kiemle , and H. Volkert , 2002 : Mountain waves

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Alain M. Dabas, Philippe Drobinski, and Pierre H. Flamant

, and this will continue for some years at least. We refer, for example, to NOAA/ETL ( Post and Cupp 1990 ), LMD/IPSL ( Drobinski et al. 1998 ) for ground-based applications, and NAILS ( Schweisow and Sapowart 1996 ), MACAWS ( Rothermel et al. 1998 ), and WIND ( Flamant et al. 1992 ) for airborne programmes in the United States and Europe. This is due to several practical reasons, one of which is long-range measurements in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) requiring a high-power transmitter

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P. Srinivasulu, P. Yasodha, A. Jayaraman, S. N. Reddy, and S. Satyanarayana

information on the dynamical atmospheric phenomenon by making use of variations in amplitude and the frequency of radio waves, which are transmitted from the radar system, backscattered by the minor irregularities in the refractive index of the atmosphere (and hydrometeors), and received by the radar system again. It is the sensitive coherent-pulse Doppler radar making use of either the Doppler beam-swinging (DBS) technique or spaced antenna (SA) technique for wind estimation. In the DBS technique, the

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G. Mastrantonio, J. Naithani, P. S. Anderson, S. Argentini, and I. Petenko

been also observed with frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FM–CW) radars ( Chadwick and Gossard 1986 ). In Fig. 12 , echoes are shown from the ENEL (the Italian national electricity board) power plant’s exhaust plume located 2 km southwest from the sodar site. The three antenna records indicate the intermittence rate. In Figs. 13a–d the backscatter power spectra associated with the relevant range gate for a series of 30 successive scans are shown as pseudo-three-dimensional graphs. The four

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Svetlana Bachmann and Dusan Zrnić

present in the planetary boundary layer. Microinsects are weak flyers, their deliberate or inadvertent motion is primarily wind driven. Insects ascend to altitudes of several hundred meters above the ground where they ride the airstreams crossing many kilometers in a single flight ( Chapman et al. 2004 ). Other passive wind tracers such as irregularities in refractive index or smoke plumes are also detected, often together with insects. Furthermore, there are active flyers (e.g., birds, bats, etc

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Yasmine Calisesi, René Stübi, Niklaus Kämpfer, and Pierre Viatte

deduced from ∼44,000 re-evaluated Umkehr profiles (1957–2000). Meteor. Atmos. Phys. , 79 , 127 – 158 . 10.1007/s007030200000 Calisesi, Y. , Wernli H. , and Kämpfer N. , 2001 : Midstratospheric ozone variability over Bern related to planetary wave activity during the winters 1994–1995 to 1998–1999. J. Geophys. Res. , 106 , 7903 – 7916 . 10.1029/2000JD900710 Clancy, R. T. , and Muhleman D. O. , 1993 : Ground-based microwave spectroscopy of the Earth's stratosphere and mesosphere

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Ian S. Adams and Michael H. Bettenhausen

. Methodology a. ARTS For simulating WindSat and TMI , we used the ARTS, version 2.3 ( Eriksson et al. 2011 ). ARTS is a radiative transfer simulation framework that considers spheroidal planetary geometries for computing atmospheric transmission and radiation in one, two, or three dimensions. Within ARTS, two options are available for solving the radiative transfer equation when scattering hydrometeors are present: a discrete ordinate iterative (DOIT) method ( Emde et al. 2004 ) and a reverse Monte Carlo

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Stephen D. Nicholls and Karen I. Mohr

this paper, we describe the WML detection methodology and show examples of analyzed WMLs in raobs and other data inputs from North Africa. In addition to containing the Sahara Desert, North Africa has several important features making it a useful study area, including raob sites with long observational records, multiple land surface types, and multiple dynamical influences such as synoptic waves, large-scale subsidence, moist monsoon inflow, and marine inversion layers that challenged us in

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Prasan Chintawongvanich, Robert Olsen, and Christopher A. Biltoft

, 456 pp.Hinze, J. O., 1975: Turbulence, 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill, 790 pp.Hooke, W. H., and R. M. Jones, 1986: Dissipative waves excited by gravity-wave encounters with the stably stratified planetary boundary layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 43, 2048-2060.Jenkins, G. M., and D. G. Watts, 1968: Spectral Analysis and its Applications. Holden-Day, 525 pp. Kaimal, J. C., and J. E. Gaynor, 1983: The Boulder Atmospheric Observatory. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 22, 863-880. --, P. L. Finkelstein, M. E

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