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Shahzada Adnan, Kalim Ullah, and Gao Shouting

, respectively, at the α = 0.05 significance level); 3) to delineate the correlation among different precipitation and drought indices; and finally 4) to investigate the drought climatologies and vulnerable areas in the SCA region with special focus on Pakistan for the period of 1951–2010, which may be helpful for water management and agricultural planning for sustainable development. 2. Data and methodology The study area lies in the domain of 20.25°–45.75°N, 59.25°–80.75°E and comprises Afghanistan, China

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Simone Lolli and Paolo Di Girolamo

constraints. The composite index, evaluated on existing networks, may be a useful tool to plan a future strategy, optimizing those stations equipped with lower-performing instruments. In this paper we consider the created composite index to characterize the performances of instruments dedicated to the measurement of two specific atmospheric parameters, wind speed and planetary boundary layer height, by considering a case based on real instruments available on the market. 2. Methodology The composite index

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Sara C. Pryor, Tristan J. Shepherd, Patrick J. H. Volker, Andrea N. Hahmann, and Rebecca J. Barthelmie

, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2019, personal communication). Thus, WT array–array interactions should be considered when locating new developments (i.e., new WT arrays) to properly characterize projected AEP from existing and planned developments. The right to unimpeded wind capture is a legal concept that is beyond the scope of the current research. It is worth noting that the existence of legal mechanisms to challenge construction of new upstream arrays or to require remuneration for lost

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Meaghan Daly and Suraje Dessai

were formed with the assumption that climate information, including seasonal climate forecasts, should provide “substantial benefit to many parts of the world in adapting to and mitigating the impacts of climate variability and change.” Climate risk management approaches within the RCOFs are generally organized sectorally and involve assessment of potential sectoral risks based on the forecast information in order to enable preemptive planning, decision-making, and action to mitigate or prepare for

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Paolina Bongioannini Cerlini, Lorenzo Silvestri, Silvia Meniconi, and Bruno Brunone

: Planning for an uncertain future: Climate change sensitivity assessment toward adaptation planning for public water supply . Earth Interact. , 17 , . 10.1175/2012EI000501.1 Bjerklie , D. M. , T. J. Trombley , and R. J. Viger , 2011 : Simulations of historical and future trends in snowfall and groundwater recharge for basins draining to Long Island Sound . Earth Interact. , 15 , . 10.1175/2011EI374.1 Bonta , J. V

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Jinbo Wang, Lee-Lueng Fu, Bo Qiu, Dimitris Menemenlis, J. Thomas Farrar, Yi Chao, Andrew F. Thompson, and Mar M. Flexas

. Locations of the glider are off the center of the swath and are different from the illustration in Fig. 10 , but they do not affect the conclusion. Final plan for the location of the instruments is still to be determined and not the focus here. (b) Surface positions of glider 1. Target location is marked (black symbol). Distances to target with a 1-km interval are indicated (circles; outer circle marks 6 km to target). Gliders perform worse than moorings. Glider SSH is generally weaker than . The

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B. F. Ryan, K. J. Wilson, J. R. Garratt, and R. K. Smith

Following the analysis of data collected during Phases I and II of the Cold Fronts Research Programme (CFRP) a conceptual model for the Australian summertime “cool change” has been proposed. The model provides a focus and a framework for the design of Phase III.

The model is based on data gathered from a mesoscale network centered on Mount Gambier, South Australia, and includes the coastal waters to the west and relatively flat terrain to the east. The first objective of Phase III is to generalize the model so that it is applicable to the ocean waters to the far west of Mount Gambier and to the more rugged terrain farther to the east in the vicinity of Melbourne, Victoria. The remaining objectives concentrate on resolving unsatisfactory aspects of the model such as the evolution of convective lines and the relationship between the surface cold front and the upper-tropospheric cold pool and its associated jet stream.

The integrated nature of the Cold Fronts Research Programme has meant that it has stimulated a wide range of research activities that extend beyond the field observations. The associated investigations include climatological, theoretical, and numerical modeling studies.

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New Organization Plan of the American Meteorological Society

Adopted by the Council of the Society, September 22, 1960

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D. A. Leone, R. M. Endlich, J. Petričeks, R. T. H. Collis, and J. R. Porter

A systematic and objective approach was used to optimize the siting of the individual radars forming the Next Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD) network. Prime consideration was given to meteorological factors, in conjunction with the user agencies' needs and the population distribution. The latter was assessed by a novel technique using weather satellite photographs showing urban illumination at night. Priority coverage areas were identified for population centers based on the expected paths of storms and their travel speeds. Radar viewing of the priority coverage areas down to low altitudes is needed so that approaching storms can be detected and warnings issued as early as possible. Other siting criteria taken into account included consideration of terrain features and local obstructions, locations of airways and civilian and military airports, electromagnetic interference, and integration of NEXRAD data into the national weather system.

The methodology for selecting the network is described. Environmental impacts and costs of site acquisition and preparation were also involved in the study, but are not discussed in this paper.

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F. W. Reichelderfer
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