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Valérie Dulière, Yongxin Zhang, and Eric P. Salathé Jr.

trends and scattered negative trends elsewhere ( DeGaetano 2009 ; Mass et al. 2011 ). These changes are broadly consistent with the anticipated effects of anthropogenic climate change ( Gutowski et al. 2008 ). It is unclear, however, whether local trends are discernible from the natural variability in the climate. We will address this problem in the current paper by comparing observed trends to trends simulated by global and regional climate models. The climate of the western United States is rather

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Michael P. Jensen, Andrew M. Vogelmann, William D. Collins, Guang J. Zhang, and Edward P. Luke

. 2006 ; Rosenfeld et al. 2006 ), where the effects may depend on the combined influences of aerosols, thermodynamics, and the diurnal cycle ( Matsui et al. 2006 ). In this paper, to aid in understanding the role MBL clouds play in climate and assist in improving their representations in climate models, we use satellite data to characterize the organization of MBL cloud systems across the globe (macroscale structure), their associated microphysical properties (e.g., liquid water path and particle

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Detlef Jahn

; Scruggs 2003 ). However, this article argues that another aspect has been neglected in environmental studies: the impact of climate and weather conditions. The rationale of considering this aspect is straightforward: countries in cold climates, as well as years with severe winters, require more energy for heating, thus leading to increased atmospheric emissions. Neglecting the regional climate and weather patterns generates an omitted variable bias, which in turn may lead to false results. While the

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Daniel B. Walton, Fengpeng Sun, Alex Hall, and Scott Capps

GCMs. To build in a tolerance for such ensemble-size effects, we sampled over a region encompassing the highest correlated points, rather than just the best-correlated point. The predictor of the dynamically downscaled regional mean, RgMean(gcm, month), is the average warming over all the points a rectangular region with longitude bounds 120.5°–117.5°W and latitude bounds 32°–34.5°N shown in Fig. 7a (black and white dashed box). Fig . 7. Correlations between GCM warming (interpolated to an 18-km

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Heiko Balzter, France Gerard, Charles George, Graham Weedon, Will Grey, Bruno Combal, Etienne Bartholomé, Sergey Bartalev, and Sietse Los

patterns. Delbart et al. (2005) study the dates of the onset of green up and leaf senescence over central Siberia using the same phenology field data as in the current study together with three different spectral indices from the SPOT-VEGETATION sensor. They conclude that in the boreal biome NDVI-based greening-up dates are affected strongly by snow effects influencing the spectral signatures at the red and near-infrared bands. In contrast to NDVI, the normalized difference water index (NDWI) only

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Ross E. Alter, Ying Fan, Benjamin R. Lintner, and Christopher P. Weaver

. Union , 90 , 453 , doi: 10.1029/2009EO480001 . Huber, D. , Mechem D. , and Brunsell N. , 2014 : The effects of Great Plains irrigation on the surface energy balance, regional circulation, and precipitation . Climate , 2 , 103 – 128 , doi: 10.3390/cli2020103 . Im, E.-S. , Marcella M. P. , and Eltahir E. A. B. , 2014 : Impact of potential large-scale irrigation on the West African monsoon and its dependence on location of irrigated area . J. Climate , 27 , 994 – 1009 , doi: 10

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Guoqi Han and Weigen Huang

Giulivi 2004 ). Based primarily on tide gauge observations, the global mean sea level rose at a rate of 1–2 mm yr −1 during the last century ( Church et al. 2001 ). The geocentric rate of the sea level rise for the period from 1993 to 2003 was estimated to be 2.8 ± 0.4 mm yr −1 ( Cazenave and Nerem 2004 ). Studies using tide gauge data and satellite altimetry indicated significant regional differences, with some areas 10 times as high as the global average ( Cazenave and Nerem 2004 ) and others

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Chaim I. Garfinkel, Dennis L. Hartmann, and Fabrizio Sassi

phase. Since then, many modeling-based studies ( Hampson and Haynes 2006 ; Pascoe et al. 2006 ; Naito and Yoden 2006 ) and data-based studies ( Ruzmaikin et al. 2005 ; Garfinkel and Hartmann 2007 ) have analyzed the effects the QBO has on the polar vortex and, at the level of detail discussed in this paper, reached similar conclusions. Although the QBO is outside the main focus of this article, we will briefly discuss it. Our investigation will center on how tropospheric anomalies generated by

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Sanjiv Kumar, Venkatesh Merwade, James L. Kinter III, and Dev Niyogi

, 675 – 691 . Giorgi , F. , X. Q. Bi , and Y. Qian , 2003 : Indirect vs. direct effects of anthropogenic sulfate on the climate of East Asia as simulated with a regional coupled climate-chemistry/aerosol model . Climatic Change , 58 , 345 – 376 . Hamed , K. H. , 2008 : Trend detection in hydrologic data: The Mann–Kendall trend test under the scaling hypothesis . J. Hydrol. , 349 , 350 – 363 . Hamed , K. H. , and A. R. Rao , 1998 : A modified Mann–Kendall trend test for

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Yi-Hsuan Chen, Xianglei Huang, Xiuhong Chen, and Mark Flanner

decades to understand the physical mechanisms that can affect climate variations in the Sahara and Sahel and the surrounding regions. Previous studies suggest that a number of factors can affect the weather and climate in the Sahara and Sahel, such as decadal to multidecadal variability of sea surface temperatures in different ocean basins ( Giannini et al. 2003 ; Mohino et al. 2011 ; Fontaine et al. 2011 ; Rodríguez-Fonseca et al. 2015 ), aerosol and its indirect effects on clouds ( Rotstayn and

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