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Bernadett Weinzierl, A. Ansmann, J. M. Prospero, D. Althausen, N. Benker, F. Chouza, M. Dollner, D. Farrell, W. K. Fomba, V. Freudenthaler, J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, M. Haarig, B. Heinold, K. Kandler, T. B. Kristensen, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, T. Müller, O. Reitebuch, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, K. Schepanski, A. Spanu, I. Tegen, C. Toledano, and A. Walser

Multiscale Chemistry Aerosol Transport Model (COSMO-MUSCAT) simulations. COSMO-MUSCAT is a regional dust model system that computes the size-resolved distribution of Saharan dust including radiative effects and feedbacks ( Heinold et al. 2007 , 2011 ). Simulations were run for the period April–July 2013 with 28-km horizontal grid spacing on a model domain that covers the Saharan Desert and the tropical Atlantic Ocean including the Caribbean. Combined with trajectory analysis, COSMO-MUSCAT shows the

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Laura D. Riihimaki, Connor Flynn, Allison McComiskey, Dan Lubin, Yann Blanchard, J. Christine Chiu, Graham Feingold, Daniel R. Feldman, Jake J. Gristey, Christian Herrera, Gary Hodges, Evgueni Kassianov, Samuel E. LeBlanc, Alexander Marshak, Joseph J. Michalsky, Peter Pilewskie, Sebastian Schmidt, Ryan C. Scott, Yolanda Shea, Kurtis Thome, Richard Wagener, and Bruce Wielicki

ultimate effect on radiative fluxes from regional to global scales. As climate models are on track to reach unprecedented resolution in the coming decade—3 km globally for the Simple Cloud Resolving E3SM Atmosphere Model (SCREAM) parameterizations within the DOE Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SM)—understanding the details of fine-scale processes that drive aerosol and cloud radiative effects over smaller domains and the manifestation of those processes at regional to global scales has come into

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Henry F. Diaz and Thomas W. Swetnam

, especially from sparks along railways from wood-burning locomotives. The fledgling Forest Service had a tiny force of rangers with the responsibility for detecting and suppressing wildfires over enormous and remote areas. The national forests increased by 16 million acres in 1907 by executive order of Theodore Roosevelt in the last days of his presidency ( Egan 2009 ). Given the regional dryness, abundant slash fuels near frontier logging settlements, ubiquitous ignitions from human sources, and the lack

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Paquita Zuidema, Jens Redemann, James Haywood, Robert Wood, Stuart Piketh, Martin Hipondoka, and Paola Formenti

aerosol nucleating the clouds also alter the cloud microphysics and the clouds' likelihood of producing rain. Other effects exist, for example, from the moisture associated with the aerosol layer, while further effects may still remain to be discovered. At a larger scale, the change in atmospheric warming from the smoke affects the neighboring precipitation distribution. The smoke’s influence on the surface energy budget ultimately affects the equatorial climate and its variability through the trade

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P. O. Canziani, A. O'Neill, R. Schofield, M. Raphael, G. J. Marshall, and G. Redaelli

A World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Special Workshop titled the “Climatic effects of ozone depletion in the Southern Hemisphere: Assessing the evidence and identifying gaps in the current knowledge” focused on the current understanding of Southern Hemisphere (SH) ozone depletion, in particular high-latitude ozone depletion, with regards to its impacts on hemispheric climate and its role relative to greenhouse gas (GHG)–induced climate changes. The 2010 United Nations Environment Programme

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Hunter M. Jones, E. L. Mecray, S. D. Birkel, K. C. Conlon, P. L. Kinney, V. B. S. Silva, W. Solecki, and T. M. Surgeon Rogers

NIHHIS NORTHEAST DECISION CALENDAR WORKSHOP What : The National Integrated Heat Health Information System (NIHHIS) convened a regional workshop to understand the multidisciplinary user contexts for heat-health information, employing a decision calendar approach to document discipline-specific and time-scale-explicit decisions made to reduce heat-health risk. When : 18 October 2018 Where : Westborough, Massachusetts The National Integrated Heat Health Informa tion System (NIHHIS) Northeast

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Phu Nguyen, Andrea Thorstensen, Soroosh Sorooshian, Kuolin Hsu, Amir Aghakouchak, Hamed Ashouri, Hoang Tran, and Dan Braithwaite

: Nonparametric tests against trend . Econometrica , 13 , 245 – 259 , https://doi.org/10.2307/1907187 . 10.2307/1907187 Mendoza , P. A. , and Coauthors , 2016 : Effects of different regional climate model resolution and forcing scales on projected hydrologic changes . J. Hydrol. , 541 , 1003 – 1019 , https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2016.08.010 . 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2016.08.010 Miao , C. , and Coauthors , 2015 : Evaluation of the PERSIANN-CDR daily rainfall estimates in capturing the behavior

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Paul A. Kucera, Elizabeth E. Ebert, F. Joseph Turk, Vincenzo Levizzani, Dalia Kirschbaum, Francisco J. Tapiador, Alexander Loew, and M. Borsche

economic damage and fatalities that affect nearly every country in the world. Despite their broad impacts, characterizing the frequency, severity, and occurrence of such events has been primarily limited to regional or local analyses due to the dearth of rainfall gauges and the spatial scale of existing landslide and flood models. Recent research has sought to use satellite rainfall estimates from TRMM to inform the spatial and temporal distribution of flooding and landslides at the global scale ( Hong

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Florian Lemarié, Hans Burchard, Laurent Debreu, Knut Klingbeil, and Jacques Sainte-Marie

FIRST COMMODORE WORKSHOP: COMMUNITY FOR THE NUMERICAL MODELING OF THE GLOBAL, REGIONAL, AND COASTAL OCEAN What : A total of 47 participants from 9 countries representing 15 different oceanic numerical models met to review our current understanding of future challenges in the design of oceanic dynamical cores. When : 17–19 September 2018 Where : Paris, France Oceanic numerical models are used to understand and predict a wide range of processes from global paleoclimate scales to short

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Jennifer A. Francis

, is challenging. As AA intensifies, however, evidence of its impacts is becoming clearer, particularly the regional and seasonal variations, and its dependence on the background state ( Overland et al. 2016 ; Sung et al. 2016 ; Nakamura et al. 2016b ). The abrupt flip of the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) index from negative to positive in late 2013, coinciding with substantial ice loss in the Arctic’s Pacific sector (Chukchi–Beaufort Seas), provides an example of this relationship

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