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Sunke Schmidt and Uwe Send

1. Introduction The Labrador Sea plays an important role in the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation and is a region with pronounced thermal and haline variability on interannual time scales ( Lab Sea Group 1998 ). Temperature, as well as salinity, also has a strong seasonal cycle. Different sources and mechanisms have been suggested for the origin of these interannual and seasonal variabilities. They vary from local sources and sinks, Hudson Bay outflow, Baffin Bay waters, and Canadian

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Femke C. Vossepoel and David W. Behringer

discrepancy appears to be related to the relatively fresh conditions in the western Pacific. In these experiments the introduction of T/P observations into the assimilation has improved the model sea level, but has degraded the model temperature field. Ji et al. conclude that this is the result of the assimilation system applying the wrong correction to temperature to compensate for an inaccurate representation of salinity in the model. This conclusion is supported by the work of Maes (1998) who showed

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Rui Xin Huang, James R. Luyten, and Henry M. Stommel

MARCH 1992 HUANG ET AL. 231Multiple Equilibrium States in Combined Thermal and Saline Circulation*RuI XIN HUANG, JAMES R. LUYTEN, AND HENRY M. STOMMELWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts(Manuscript received 10 August 1990, in final form 8 July 1991)ABSTRACT Structure and stability of the multiple equilibria of the thermohaline circulation are

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Masachika Masujima and Ichiro Yasuda

1. Introduction North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW) is defined as water with a vertical salinity minimum in the densities between 26.6 and 26.9 σ θ at 300–800-m depth, including the water around the salinity minimum (e.g., Sverdrup et al. 1942 ; Reid 1965 ), and is widely distributed in the North Pacific subtropical region ( Sverdrup et al. 1942 ; Reid 1965 ; Hasunuma 1978 ; Talley 1993 ). The low salinity source forming the salinity minimum of NPIW has been recognized as water from

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Shijian Hu, Ying Zhang, Ming Feng, Yan Du, Janet Sprintall, Fan Wang, Dunxin Hu, Qiang Xie, and Fei Chai

1. Introduction Oceanic salinity plays an important role in the climate system due to its significant influence on oceanic stratification and barrier layers ( Sprintall and Tomczak 1992 ; Thompson et al. 2006 ; Balaguru et al. 2016 ) and ocean circulation ( Gordon et al. 2003 ; Feng et al. 2015 ; Hu and Sprintall 2016 , 2017a , b ), and has a close link to the global hydrological cycle ( Durack and Wijffels 2010 ; Durack et al. 2012 ). Investigation of ocean salinity variability and

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Y. C. Sud and G. K. Walker

1. Introduction Even though the influence of oceanic salinity on the saturation vapor pressure of seawater is to depress it by roughly 2.0% (the actual value at a place being a function of the magnitude of salinity), climate modelers have chosen to ignore this effect presuming it to be insignificant compared to other parameters that affect air–sea fluxes. On the other hand, so much research and tuning effort has been devoted to better estimate the bulk surface transfer coefficients, C D and

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S. Ricci, A. T. Weaver, J. Vialard, and P. Rogel

1. Introduction In the Tropics, salinity effects have often been neglected when studying the ocean general circulation. Looking at averaged conditions this assumption is justified: the change in density due to changes in temperature is much greater than the change in density due to changes in salinity. Nevertheless, several studies have shown that salinity can play an important role in the variability of the tropical oceans. For example, Roemmich et al. (1994) have shown that salinity

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NOTICE TO OCEANOGRAPHERSA Practical Salinity Scale At the ninth meeting of the Unesco/ICES/SCOR/IAPSO Joint Panel on Oceanographic Tables andStandards held in Paris, 11- 13 September 1978, the"practical salinity scale (1978)" was recommendedfor adoption by the parent organizations. Detailsmay be found in Unesco (1978) and Unesco (1979). A new salinity scale is needed so that all institutions using conductivity-temperature-depth(CTD) instruments shall be able to report their observations

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Max Yaremchuk, Julian McCreary Jr., Zuojun Yu, and Ryo Furue

deep Mindoro Strait, almost all of the water for the Indonesian Throughflow entered the Indonesian Seas through the Mindoro Strait, rather than from near the equator (R. Furue 2006, personal communication). Based on climatological data from the World Ocean Atlas 2001 ( WOA01 ) ( Conkright et al. 2002 ), a prominent feature of the SCS is a subsurface salinity maximum at a depth of 150–200 m ( Fig. 2 ; thin dashed curve), which results from the presence of North Pacific tropical water (NPTW) within

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Sonya Legg and James C. McWilliams

= g (1 − ρ / ρ 0 ), (1) where g is the gravitational acceleration, ρ is the density, and ρ 0 is a mean reference density, since b is the relevant scalar variable for the gravitational force. However, in seawater buoyancy is a function of both temperature T and salinity S, which are the fundamental material properties related to air–sea heat and water exchanges and thus climate variability. Our focus in this paper is on distinguishing the behaviors of T and S from that of b

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